Hacia la inclusión del alumnado con TEA en educación física: investigación-acción en un programa piloto (Towards the inclusion of students with ASD in physical education: action-research in a pilot programme)

Palabras clave: trastorno del espectro autista, educación física, investigación-acción, diseño universal de aprendizaje, inclusión, aprendizaje-servicio, (Autism spectrum disorder, physical education, action-research, inclusion, methodology)

Resumen

 

 

La prevalencia del trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) ha aumentado en las décadas recientes. Es necesario que el profesorado atienda la diversidad presente en las aulas, teniendo en consideración las características y necesidades que presentan las personas con TEA a la hora de diseñar propuestas educativas capaces de motivar la participación de todo el alumnado. El presente trabajo relata un proceso de investigación-acción (IA) abordado en el seno de un programa piloto de sesiones de Educación Física (EF) con alumnado con TEA. El objetivo consistió en testar un programa de actividades centrado en ofrecer pautas útiles para el profesorado, aplicables tanto en sesiones ordinarias de EF, como en unidades específicas de comunicación y lenguaje. Partiendo del compromiso con el enfoque de educación inclusivo, la propuesta de actividades se hizo teniendo como base de fundamentación la legislación vigente y se analizó a través de la metodología de IA. Los resultados obtenidos concretan que orientaciones como la utilización de pictogramas explicativos de las tareas, el modelaje, la introducción de temáticas de su interés o el uso de una metodología directiva, pueden mejorar la participación y servir como referencia para el diseño de futuras propuestas de EF.

Abstract. The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased in recent decades. It is necessary for teachers to attend to the diversity present in the classrooms, taking into account the characteristics and needs of people with ASD when designing educational proposals capable of motivating the inclusion of all students. The present work reports an action-research (AR) process approached within a pilot program of Physical Education (PE) sessions with students with ASD. The objective consisted of testing a program of activities focused on offering useful guidelines for teachers, applicable both in ordinary PE sessions, as well as in specific communication and language units. Based on the commitment to the inclusive education approach, the proposal of activities was based on the current legislation and analysed through the AR methodology. The results obtained show that guidelines such as the use of pictograms to explain the tasks, modelling, the introduction of topics of interest, and the use of a directive methodology can improve participation and serve as a reference for the design of future PE proposals.

Citas

American Psychiatric Association [APA] (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Beamer, J. A., & Yun, J. (2014). Physical educators’ beliefs and self-re-ported behaviors toward including students with autism spectrum dis- order. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 31, 362-376.doi:10.1123/ apaq.2014-0134

Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. (2002) Guía para la evaluación y mejora de la educación inclusiva (Desarrollando el aprendizaje y la participación en las escuelas). UNESCO, París.

Brock, M. E., Cannella-Malone, H. I., Seaman, R. L., Andzik, N. R., Schaefer, J. M., Page, E. J., & Dueker, S. (2017). Findings across practitioner training studies in special education: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 84, 7-26.doi:10.1177/0014402917698008.

Bryan, L. C., & Gast, D. L. (2000). Teaching on-task and on-schedule behaviours to high-functioning children with autism via picture activity schedules. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 553-567. doi: 10.1023/a:1005687310346

Bowe, F. (2004). Making inclusion work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Capp, M. J. (2017). The effectiveness of universal design for learning: A meta-analysis of literature between 2013 and 2016. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21, 791-807.doi:10.1080/13603116. 2017.1325074

Casartelli, L., Molteni, M., & Ronconi, L. (2016). So close yet so far: Motor anomalies impacting on social functioning in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 63, 98-105.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.02.001

CAST (2011). Universal design for learning guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield, MA: Author.Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/downloads.

Chiva-Bartoll, O. (2019). Los valores educatives del deporte: el fair play como ética cívica. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana, 24(87), 86-96.

Chiva-Bartoll, O., Moliner, M. L., & Salvador-Garcí¬a, C- (2020). Can service-learning promote social well-being in primary education students? A mixed method approach. Children and Youth Services Review, 111, 104841. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104841

Colombo-Dougovito, A. M., & Block, M. E. (2019). Fundamental Motor Skill Interventions for Children and Adolescents on the Autism Spectrum: a Literature Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 6(2), 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-019-00161-2

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage.

Crucitti, J., Hyde, C., & Stokes, M. A. (2019). Hammering that nail: varied praxis motor skills in younger autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1080 3-019-04136-4.

Decreto 87/2015, de 5 de junio del Consell, por el que establece el currículo y desarrolla la ordenación general de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y del Bachillerato en la Comunitat Valenciana.

Drum, C. E., Krahn, G. L., & Bersani, H. A. (2009). Disability and public health. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/id/10486824

Fournier, K. A., Hass, C. J., Naik, S. K., Lodha, N., & Cauraugh, J. H. (2010). Motor coordination in autism spectrum disorders: a synthesis and meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(10), 1227-1240.

García Gómez, A., Moratinos Morillo, M., Zambrano Sánchez, J. C., & Cotrina Santano, L. J. (2020). Actividad física y sueño en un grupo de tres adolescentes con autismo, Retos, 38, 248-254. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v38i38.74586

Geschwind, D. H., & Levitt, P. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: Developmental disconnection syndromes. Current Opinion in Neurobilogy, 17(1), 103-111.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2007.01.009.

Goyette, G., & Lessard-Hérbert, M. (1988). La investigación-acción. Funciones, fundamentos e instrumentación. Barcelona: Alerte.

Green, D., Charman, T., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Simonoff, E., & Baird, G. (2009). Impairments in movement skills of children with autistic spectrum disorders. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 51, 311-316. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03242.x

Habib, K., Montreuil, T., & Bertone, A., (2018). Social learning through exercise for students with autism spectrum disorders. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 5, 285-293 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-018-0139-3.

Healy, S., Nacario, A., Braithwaite, R. E., & Hopper, C. (2018). The effect of physical activity interventions on youth with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis. Autism Research, 11(6), 818-833.doi:10.1002/aur.1955

Kaur, M., Srinivasan, S. M., & Bhat, A. N. (2018). Comparing motor performance, praxis, coordination, and interpersonal synchrony between children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 72, 79-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2017.10.025

Jones, A. P., & Frederickson, N. (2010). Multi-informant predictors of social inclusion for students with autism spectrum disorders attending mainstream school. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 40(9), 1094-1103. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-0957-3

Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (1992) The Action Research Planner (3rd ed.). Geelong: Deakin University Press.

Kennedy, W., & Yun, J. (2019) Universal Design for Learning as a Curriculum Development Tool in Physical Education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 90 (6), 25-31, DOI: 10.1080/07303084.2019.1614119.

Lindsay, S., Proulx, M., Scott., H., & Thomson, N. (2014). Exploring teachers strategies for including children with autism spectrum disorder in mainstream classrooms. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(2), 101-122. doi: 10.1080/13603116.2012.758320

Maenner, M. J., Shaw, K. A., Baio, J., Washington, A., Patrick, M., DiRienzo, M… Dietz, M. P (2020). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years-Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2016. MMWR Surveill Summ, 69(SS-4), 1-12. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6904a1

MacDonald, M., Esposito, P., & Ulrich, D. (2011). The physical activity patterns of children with autism. BMC Research Notes, 4(1), 422. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-422.

MacDonald, M., Lord, C., & Ulrich, D. (2013). The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 30, 271-282. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.30.3.271.

MacMillan, M., Tarrant, M., Abraham, C., & Morris, C. (2014). The association between children’s contact with people with disabilities and their attitudes towards disability: A systematic review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56, 529-546. https:// doi:10.1111/dmcn.12326.

Martínez Miguélez, M. (2000). La investigación acción en el aula. Agenda Académica,7(1), 27-39.

Meindl, J. N., Delgado, D., & Casey, L. B. (2020). Increasing engagement in students with autism in inclusion classrooms. Children and Youth Services Review, 111, 104854. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104854

McPhillips, M., Finlay, J., Bejerot, S., & Hanley, M. (2014). Motor deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder: a cross-syndrome study. Autism research: official journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 7(6), 664-676.https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1408

Osborne, L. A., & Reed, P. (2011). School factors associated with mainstream progress in secondary education for included pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1253-1263. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.01.016

Pan, C. Y., & Frey, G. C. (2006). Physical activity patterns in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(5), 597-606.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006- 0101-6

Pan, C. Y. (2010). Effects of water exercise swimming program on aquatic skills and social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 14(1), 9-28.doi: 10.1177/1362361309339496.

Puig, J. M., Gijón, M., Martín, X., & Rubio, L. (2011). Aprendizaje-servicio y Educación para la Ciudadanía. Revista de Educación, número extraordinario, 45-67.

Real Decreto 1105/2015, del 26 de diciembre, por el que se establece el currículo básico de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y del Bachillerato.

Richler, J., Huerta, M., Bishop, S. L., & Lord, C. (2010). Developmental trajectories of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests in children with autism spectrum disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 55-69.doi: 10.1017/S0954579409990265

Robertson, K., Chamberlain, B., & Kasari, C. (2003). General education teachers' relationships with included students with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 33(2), 123-130.https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022979108096

Rincón, D., & Rincón, B. (2000). Revisión, planificación y aplicación de mejoras. Revista Interuniversitaria del Profesorado, 39, 51-73.

Schwab, S., Huber, C., & Gebhardt, M. (2016). Social acceptance of students with Down syndrome and students without disability. Educational Psychology, 36, 1501-1515.doi:10.1080/01443410.2015.1059924

Seymour, H., Reid, G., & Bloom, G. (2009). Friendship in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 26, 201-219. doi: 10.1123/apaq.26.3.201

Solís García, P., & Borja González, V. (2020). Actitudes del profesorado de Educación Física hacia la inclusión de alumnos con discapacidad, Retos, 39, 7-12. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.77841

Sorensen, C., & Zarrett, N. (2014). Benefits of Physical Activity for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comprehensive Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,1(4), 344-353.doi:10.1007/s40489-014-0027-4.

Srinivasan, S. M., Pescatello, L. S., & Bhat, A. N. (2014). Current perspectives on physical activity and exercise recommendations for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Physical Therapy, 94(6), 875-889.doi: 10.2522/ptj.20130157

Tyler, K., MacDonald, M., & Menear, K. (2014). Physical Activity and Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Research and Treatment, 2014, 1-6.doi:10.1155/2014/312163.

UNESCO (2005) Guidelines for inclusion Ensuring Acces to education for All. París: UNESCO.

Vakil, S., Welton, E., O’Connor, B., & Kline, L. S. (2008). Inclusion means everyone! The role of early childhood educator when including young children with autism in the classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36, 321-326.doi: 10.1007/s10643-008-0289-5

Vickerman, P., & Maher, A. (2018). Teaching physical education to children with special educational needs and disabilities. Londres: Routledge.

Wach, A. (2014). Action research and teacher development: MA students’ perspective. In Pawlak, Mirosław; Bielak, Jakub; Mystkowska-Wiertelak, Anna (eds.) Classroom-oriented Research. Achievements and Challenges. Heidelberg: Springer, 121-137.

Weiss, M. J., & Harris, S. L. (2001). Teaching social skills to people with autism. Behavior Modification, 25(5), 785-802.doi: 10.1177/0145445501255007.

Whyatt, C. P., & Craig, C. M. (2012). Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1799-1809.doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1421-8

Wilmshurst, L., & Brue, A. (2010). The complete guide to special education. San Francisco: Josse

Publicado
2021-03-16
Cómo citar
Maravé-Vivas, M., Carregui Ballester, J., Gil-Gómez, J., & Chiva-Bartoll, Òscar. (2021). Hacia la inclusión del alumnado con TEA en educación física: investigación-acción en un programa piloto (Towards the inclusion of students with ASD in physical education: action-research in a pilot programme). Retos, 42, 66-76. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.85845
Sección
Divulgación y/o experiencias didácticas empíricas. Intercambio de propuestas y experiencias desarrollas e investigadas