Efectividad en programas preventivos de lesiones deportivas músculo esqueléticas en adultos sedentarios que inician actividad física (Effectiveness in preventive programs of skeletal muscle injuries in sedentary adults who begin a sports activity)

  • Victor Villegas Pulgar Universidad Católica de Temuco
  • Pablo Vásquez Reyes Universidad Católica de Temuco
  • Fernando Romero Carrasco Universidad Católica de Temuco.
  • Cristian José Oñate Navarrete Universidad Católica de Temuco
  • Claudia Navarrete Hidalgo Universidad Católica de Temuco
Palabras clave: Actividad Física, Comportamiento Sedentario, Medicina preventiva, Ejercicio, Lesiones Deportivas (Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, Preventive medicine, Exercise, Athletic Injuries)

Resumen

 

El comportamiento sedentario conlleva al aumento de la fatiga muscular, esto debido a que existe menor producción de óxido nítrico, menor flujo sanguíneo, predisponiendo a la generación de lesiones músculos esqueléticas. En Chile la población sedentaria mayor de 18 años alcanza el 86,7% según la última Encuesta Nacional De Salud 2016-2017. Objetivo: demostrar el efecto de los programas de intervención realizados para prevenir lesiones músculo esqueléticasen personas sedentarias que inician una actividad deportiva. Método: se efectuó una revisión de la literatura científica en bases de datosy en función de criterios de elegibilidad se seleccionaron nueve artículos. Resultados: se escogieron el 18% de los artículos seleccionados obteniendo nueve artículos de un total de 49 artículos atingentes encontrados en la búsqueda.Conclusiones: se destacan como efectivos aquellos programas con una frecuencia de tres a cinco días; con un volumen de intensidad semanal bajo o medio, según la frecuencia escogida; en los cuales el plan de entrenamiento considera ejercicios de movilidad articular, ejercicios excéntricos y entrenamiento propioceptivo; no se define una duración determinada para la sesión de entrenamiento,para conseguir cambios significativos. 

Abstract. Sedentary behaviors lead to increased muscle fatigue, this due to lower nitric oxide production, lower blood flow, predisposing to the generation of skeletal muscle injuries. In Chile, sedentary population over the age of 18 years reaches 86.7% according to the latest National Health Survey 2016-2017.Objective: to demonstrate the effect of intervention programs performed to prevent skeletal muscle injuries. Method: A review of the scientific literature was carried out in databases and nine articles were selected based on eligibility criteria. Results: 18% of the articles were chosen from a total of 49 in the list of items found in the search. Conclusions: programs with a frequency of three to five days are highlighted as effective; with low or medium weekly intensity volume, it depends on the chosen frequency; the training plans include joint mobility exercises, eccentric exercises, and proprioceptive training; there is no fixed duration for the training session to achieve significant changes.

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Publicado
2020-06-21
Cómo citar
Villegas Pulgar, V., Vásquez Reyes, P., Romero Carrasco, F., Oñate Navarrete, C., & Navarrete Hidalgo, C. (2020). Efectividad en programas preventivos de lesiones deportivas músculo esqueléticas en adultos sedentarios que inician actividad física (Effectiveness in preventive programs of skeletal muscle injuries in sedentary adults who begin a sports activity). Retos, (39), 880-886. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.75645
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