Efecto de modificar la profundidad y velocidad del contramovimiento durante el salto vertical (Effects of countermovement depth and velocity modifications during the vertical jump)

Alberto Sánchez-Sixto, Julio López-Álvarez, Pablo Floría

Resumen


Objetivo. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar el efecto de modificar la profundidad y la velocidad del contramovimiento en el salto vertical. Material y método. Once jugadores de deportes colectivos participaron en este estudio y realizaron 9 saltos con contramovimiento: 3 en los que ellos seleccionaban la velocidad y profundidad del contramovimiento (CMJ), 3 en los que incrementaban la profundidad del contramovimiento y seleccionaban libremente su velocidad (CMJP) y 3 en los que incrementaban la profundidad y velocidad del contramovimiento (CMJPR). La altura máxima, el tiempo, la fuerza, la velocidad y el desplazamiento del centro de masas fueron calculadas durante la fase de contramovimiento y de propulsión. Resultados. No se encontraron mejoras substanciales entre ninguno de los tres tipos de salto llevados a cabo por los participantes. En el CMJPR se consiguió incrementar substancialmente la fuerza máxima y la fuerza inicial con respecto al CMJ. En el CMJP todas las variables de fuerza fueron inferiores que en el CMJ. El tiempo de la fase de contramovimiento fue inferior en el CMJ en comparación con el CMJP, no existiendo diferencias con el CMJPR. El tiempo de la fase de propulsión fue inferior en el CMJ en comparación con los otros dos saltos. Conclusión. Incrementos en la profundidad del contramovimiento del CMJ a través de una orden simple, no fueron capaces de conseguir un aumento del rendimiento en el salto vertical en la presente investigación.


Abstract. Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of countermovement depth and velocity modification in the vertical jump. Materials and methods. Eleven team sport players participated in this investigation performing nine countermovement jumps: 3 self-selected countermovement jumps (CMJ), 3 countermovement jumps with a deeper countermovement depth (CMJP) and 3 countermovement jumps with a deeper countermovement depth and a higher downward movement velocity (CMJPR). Jump height, time, force, velocity and center of mass displacement were measured during the countermovement and the propulsion phase. Results. No differences in jump height were found between the three types of jump. CMJPR showed a substantial increase in maximum force and initial force in comparison with the CMJ. CMJP force variables were lower than the values obtained during the CMJ. The time of the countermovement phase was lower in the CMJ in comparison with the CMJP, and no differences were found between the CMJ and the CMJPR. The time of the propulsion phase was lower than the other countermovement jumps performed. Conclusion. Increases in the countermovement depth of the CMJ through a simple instruction did not increase the vertical jump performance in the present investigation.


Palabras clave


Biomecánica; cinética; cinemática (Biomechanics, kinetics, kinematics)

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Referencias


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