Cognitive emotion regulation strategies In women abuse

Vanesa Galego Carrillo, Rosa Santibáñez Gruber, Ioseba Iraurgi Castillo


Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event.  Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior). For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ)”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.


Gender; Violence; Emotion; Cognition; Self-Control; Autonomy; Reliability Violence


Aguilar, C., Alonso, M.J., Melgar, P., & Molina, S. (2009). Violencia de género en el ámbito universitario. Medidas para su superación. Pedagogía Social. Revista Interuniversitaria, 16, 85-94.

Alberdi, I., & Matas, N. (2002). La violencia doméstica. Informe sobre los malos tratos a mujeres en España. Colección de Estudios Sociales, 10. Barcelona: Fundación La Caixa.

Amoros, P., & Ayerbe, P. (Eds.) (2000). Intervención educativa en inadaptación social. Madrid: Síntesis Educación.

Baumeister, R.F. (1998). The self. In Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (Eds.) The handbook of social psychology (pp. 680-740. Boston: Mc. Graw-Hill.

Baumeister, R.F. (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Philadelphia, PA.:Psychology Press

Baumeister, R.F., & Alquist, J.L. (2009). Is there a downside to good self-control? Self and Identity, 8, 115-130. DOI: 10.1080/15298860802501474

Baumeister, R.F., Heatherton, T.F., & Tice, D.M. (1994). Losing Control: How and Why People Fail at Self-Regulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Baumeister, R.F., Vohs, K., & Tice, D.M. (2007). The Strength Model of Self-Control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 396-403. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00534.x

Behling, O., & McFillen, J.M. (2000). Translating questionnaires and other research instruments. Problems and solutions. London: Sage.

Blázquez, M., Moreno, J.M., & García-Baamonde, M.E. (2010). Revisión teórica del maltrato psicológico en la violencia conyugal. Psicología y Salud, 20 (1), 65-75.

Cakmak, A.F., & Cevik, E.I. (2010). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire: Development of Turkish version of 18-item short form. African Journal of Business Management, 4 (10), 2097-2108.

Calvete, E., Estévez, A., & Corral, S. (2007). Trastorno por estrés postraumático y su relación con esquemas cognitivos disfuncionales en mujeres maltratadas. Psicothema, 19 (3), 446-451.

Carlson, B.E. (1997). A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abuse Women. Family Relations, 46, 291-298.

Chirkov, V.I. (2007). Culture, personal autonomy and individualism: Their relationship and implications for personal qrowth and well.being. In Zheng, G., Leung, K., & Adair, J.G. (Eds.), Perspectives and Progress in Contemporary Cross-Cultural

Psychology (pp. 247-263). Beijing: China Light Industry Press. Cooper, L., Anaf, J., & Bowden, M. (2006). Contested Concepts in Violence Against Women: ‘Intimate´, `Domestic´ or `Torture´. Australian Social Work, 59 (3), 314-327. DOI: 10.1080/03124070600833261

Corsi, J. (1995). Violencia familiar: una mirada interdisciplinaria sobre un grave problema social. Buenos Aires: Paidós.

Corsi, J. (2003). Maltrato y abuso en el ámbito doméstico. Fundamentos teóricos para el estudio de la violencia en las relaciones familiares. Buenos Aires: Paidós.

Dobash, E., & Dobash, R.P. (1997). Violence against women. In O’Toole, L., Schiffman, J.R.; & Edwards, M.L. (Ed.). Gender

Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp.266-278). New York: New York University Press.

Domínguez-Sánchez, F.J., Lasa-Aristu, A., Amor, P.J., & Holgado-Tello, F.P. (2013). Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version. Assessment, 20, (2), 253-261. DOI: 10.1177 /1073191110397274

Dutton, M. (1992). Empowering and healting the battered woman: A model for Assessment and Intervention. New York: Splinger publishing company.

Emakunde (1998). ¿Qué ha supuesto la conferencia de Pekín para las mujeres? Vitoria-Gasteiz: Publicaciones del GobiernoVasco.

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-development of a short 18-item version (CERQSHORT). Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1045-1053. DOI: 10.1016/ j.paid.2006.04.010

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2007). The cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Psychometric Features and Prospective Relationships with Depression and Anxiety in Adults. European Journal Assessment, 23 (3), 141-149. DOI 10.1027/10155759.23.3.141

Garnefski, N., Kraaij, N., & Spinhoven, P. (2002). CERQ Manual for the use of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. DATEC, The Netherlands: Leiderdorp.

Garnefski, N., Van den Kommer, T., Kraaij, V., Teerds, J., Legerstee, J., & Onstein, E. (2002). The relationship between Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Emotional Problems: Comparison between a Clinical and a Non-Clinical Sample. European Journal of Personality. 16, 403-420. Doi:10.1002/per.458

Gil, V.P., & Lloret, I. (2007). La violencia de género. Barcelona: VOC.

Giuliani, N.R., McRae, K., & Gross, J.J. (2008). The upand down-regulation of amusement: Experiential, behavioral and autonomic consequences. Emotion. 8 (5), 714-719. DOI: 10.1037/a0013236

Gross, J.J. (2008). Emotion Regulation. In Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones J., & Feldman, L. (Ed). Handbook of Emotions, (pp. 497-512). New York-London: The Guilford Press

Hirigoyen, M.F. (2006). Mujeres maltratadas. Los mecanismos de la violencia en la pareja. Barcelona: Paidós.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Cultures consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Larsen, R.J., & Prizmic, Z. (1994). Affect Regulation. In Baumeister, R.F., & Vohs, K.D. (Ed.). Handbook of Self-Regulation. Research, Theory, and Aplications, (pp. 40-61). New York: Guilford Press.

Lobmann, R., Greve, W., Wetzels, P., & Bosold, C. (2003). Violence against women: Conditions, consequences, and coping. Psychology, Crime & Law, 9(4), 309–331.

Lorente, M. (2001). Mi marido me pega lo normal. Barcelona: Ares y Mores. Masicampo, E.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (2007). Relating mindfulness and Self-Regulatory Processes. Psychological Inquiry, 18,(4),255-258. DOI: 10.1080/10478400701598363

Masicampo, E.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (2011). Consider it done!: Plan making can eliminate the cognitive effects of unfulfilled goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 667-683. DOI:1 0.1037/a0024192

Mestre, J.M., Guil, R., López-Fernández, C., Picardo, J.M., & Bellido, S. (2011). Cuando el estrés no es superado: el papel de la regulación de las emociones y la personalidad. In P. Fernández-Berrocal, N. Extremera, R. Palomera, D. Ruíz-Aranda, J.M. Salguero, & R. Cabello. Inteligencia Emocional: 20 años de investigación y desarrollo,273-278. Santander: Fundación Botín.

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Corte, C. (1994). Gender and self-regulation. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeiste.r Handbook of Self-Regulation. Research, Theory, and Apllications. 411-421. New York: Guilford Press.

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B.E., & Lyubomirskiy, S. (2008). Rethinking Rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3, 400-424. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x

OrganizaciónMundial de la Salud (2005). Estudio multipaís de la OMS obre salud de la mujer y violencia doméstica. Ginebra: OMS.

Organización de Naciones Unidas (2011). Informe de relatora especial sobre la violencia contra la mujer sus causas y consecuencias. Retrieved from

Padrós, M., & Aubert, A. (2010). Modelos de atracción de los y las adolescentes. Contribuciones desde la socialización preventiva de la violencia de género. Pedagogía Social. Revista Interuniversitaria, 17, 73-82.

Perte, A., & Miclea, M. (2011). The standardization of the cognitive emotional regulation questionnaire (CERQ) on Romanian population. Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal. 15 (1), 111-130.

Ramos-Díaz, N., Hernández, S.M., & Blanca, M.J. (2009). Efecto de un programa integrado de Mindfulness e inteligencia emocional sobre las estrategias cognitivas de regulación emocional. Ansiedad y Estrés, 15 (2-3), 207-216

Ray, R.D. Gross, J.J., & Wilhmen, F.H. (2008). All in the Mind’s Eye? Anger Rumination and Reappraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 (1), 133–145. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.133

Ray, R.D., Ochsner, K.N., Cooper, J.C., Robertson, E.R., Gabrieli, J.D.E., & Gross, J.J. (2005). Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive, Affective, y Behavioral Neuroscience, 5(2), 156-168. DOI: 10.3758/ CABN.5.2.156

Rosen, K. (1992). The process of coping with dating violence: A qualitative study. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University: Dissertation Abstracts International.

Sumida, E. (2010). Clariying the Relationship between Emotion Regulation, Gender, and Depression. All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 761. Retrieved from

Syers-Mcnayry, M. (1990). Women who leave violent relationships: getting on with life (volumes I and II). University of Minnesota. New York: Dissertation Abstracts International.

Troy, A.S., Sallcross, A.J., Mauss, I.B., & Wilhelm, F.H. (2010). Seeing the Silver Lining: Cognitive Reappraisal Ability Moderates the Relationship between Stress and Depressive Symptoms. Emotion, 10(6), 783-795. DOI: 10.10.37/a0020262

Waldrop, A.E., & Resick, P.A. (2004). Coping among adult female victims of domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 19 (5), 291-302. DOI: 10.1023/B:JOFV.0000042079.91846.68

Walker, L. (1991). Post-traumatic stress disorder in women: diagnosis and treatment of battered woman síndrome. Pychoterapy. 28 (1), 21-29. DOI: 10.1037/0033-3204.28.1.21

Weinehall, K., & Jonsson, M.L. (2009). Women under protection in hiding from violent men. International Journal of Social Welfare, 18, 419-430. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2009.00623.x

World Health Organitation [WHO] (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women. Geneva: World Health Organization.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

DOI: 10.7179/PSRI



Licencia Creative Commons

Este obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 España.

ISSN: 1139-1723

DOI: 10.7179/PSRI