Competencia motriz y condición física relacionada con la salud en escolares de Educación Primaria (Motor competence and health-related physical fitness in schoolchildren)

Autores/as

  • Aida Carballo-Fazanes Grupo de investigación CLINURSID, Departamento de Psiquiatría, Radiología, Salud Pública, Enfermería y Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6615-9821
  • José E. Rodríguez-Fernández Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1101-5377
  • Nair Mohedano-Vázquez Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
  • Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez Grupo de investigación CLINURSID, Departamento de Psiquiatría, Radiología, Salud Pública, Enfermería y Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3414-2771
  • Cristian Abelairas-Gómez Grupo de investigación CLINURSID, Departamento de Psiquiatría, Radiología, Salud Pública, Enfermería y Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1056-7778

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.93906

Palabras clave:

competencia motriz, desarrollo motor, aptitud física, actividad física, Test of Gross Motor Development, Batería ALPHA-Fitness (motor competence, motor development, physical aptitude, physical activity, Test of Gross Motor Development; Alpha-Fitness)

Resumen

Objetivo: analizar las posibles asociaciones entre el grado de desarrollo de las habilidades motrices básicas y la condición física relacionada con la salud en escolares de Educación Primaria. Métodos: en 21 escolares sanos (14 niñas) de 7-12 años se evaluó la competencia motriz, mediante el Test of Gross Motor Development, que aporta las puntuaciones globales, de las habilidades locomotrices y de control de objetos; y, también la condición física relacionada con la salud, con la batería ALPHA-Fitness que incluye la capacidad músculo-esquelética, composición corporal y capacidad motora. Resultados: las habilidades locomotrices se asociaron positivamente con la capacidad músculo-esquelética (r=0.662; p<0.001) e inversamente con la capacidad motora (r=-0.587, p=0.005). Además, la habilidad de la carrera se relacionó inversamente con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la circunferencia de cintura (r=-0.550, p=0.010; r=-0.510, p=0.018, respectivamente). En cuanto a las habilidades de control de objetos, se asociaron también de manera inversa con la capacidad motora (r=-0.532, p=0.013) y, concretamente, la recepción con el IMC (r=-0.487, p<0.025). El lanzamiento por encima de la cabeza se asoció positivamente con la capacidad músculo-esquelética (r=0.529, p=0.014). Conclusiones: los hitos de competencia motriz de los escolares se asocian con sus parámetros antropométricos y con indicadores de la condición física (capacidades músculo-esquelética y motora). Estos hechos apoyan la puesta en marcha de estrategias para evaluar y tratar de mejorar la competencia motriz y la condición física de los/as escolares, desde las primeras etapas, de cara a incrementar sus habilidades físicas y su salud a largo plazo.

Abstract. Aim: to assess the possible associations between the development level of fundamental movement skills and health-related physical fitness in primary schoolchildren. Methods: in 21 healthy schoolchildren (14 girls) aged 7-12 years, motor competence was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, which provide motor competence score and also locomotor and object control skills scores; and health- related physical fitness was evaluated using the ALPHA-Fitness test battery, which includes the assessment of musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, and motor fitness. Results: locomotor skills were positively associated with musculoskeletal fitness (r=0.662; p<0.001) and inversely associated with motor fitness (r=-0.587, p=0.005). In addition, run was inversely related to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (r=-0.550, p=0.010; r=-0.510, p=0.018, respectively). Regarding object control skills, they were also inversely associated with motor fitness (r=-0.532, p=0.013) and, in particular, catch with BMI (r=-0.487, p<0.025). The overhand throw was positively associated with musculoskeletal fitness (r=0.529, p=0.014).Conclusion: motor competence milestones of schoolchildren are associated with their anthropometric measurements and physical fitness indicators (musculoskeletal and motor fitness). These facts support the implementation of strategies to assess and try to improve the motor competence and physical fitness of schoolchildren, from the earliest ages, in order to increase their physical skills and long-term health.

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Publicado

2022-09-28

Cómo citar

Carballo-Fazanes, A., Rodríguez-Fernández, J. E., Mohedano-Vázquez, N., Rodríguez-Núñez, A., & Abelairas-Gómez, C. (2022). Competencia motriz y condición física relacionada con la salud en escolares de Educación Primaria (Motor competence and health-related physical fitness in schoolchildren). Retos, 46, 218–226. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.93906

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Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas