Transferencia de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza al sprint y al salto vertical en futbolistas juveniles: sentadillas vs. estocadas (Transfer of a resistance training program to sprinting and vertical jump in youth soccer players: squats vs. lunges)



Palabras clave:

Fútbol juvenil, Entrenamiento de la fuerza bilateral, Entrenamiento de la fuerza unilateral, Rendimiento deportivo, Sprint lineal, CMJ


La velocidad de sprint y la capacidad de salto vertical son requisitos fundamentales para alcanzar el alto rendimiento en fútbol. Existe controversia sobre el tipo de ejercicio de fuerza (bilateral o unilateral) que permite mayor transferencia a estos gestos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar el efecto del entrenamiento de fuerza utilizando sentadillas vs. estocadas sobre la velocidad de salto vertical y el sprint lineal en 20 metros en jugadores de fútbol de categoría juvenil. Participaron en el estudio 79 sujetos divididos aleatoriamente en tres grupos: entrenamiento con estocadas (GE) (n = 28; edad = 16,5 ± 1,2 años); entrenamiento con sentadillas (GS) (n = 24; edad = 16,3 ± 1,4 años) y grupo control (GC) (n = 27; edad = 16,5 ± 1,2 años). GE y GS realizaron entrenamiento de fuerza dos veces por semana durante 12 semanas. Previo y posterior a la intervención todos los sujetos fueron testeados en velocidad máxima en CMJ y sprint lineal de 20m. Los tres grupos mejoraron significativamente el rendimiento (p < ,05) en el sprint en 20m, siendo la mejora significativamente superior en los grupos experimentales en comparación con GC (p < ,05), sin diferencias entre los primeros. No se verificó una mejora significativa en la velocidad máxima en CMJ para ninguno de los grupos. Tanto el entrenamiento de fuerza bilateral como el predominantemente unilateral parecen ser beneficiosos para la mejora del rendimiento en velocidad de desplazamiento horizontal en jugadores de fútbol de categoría juvenil, sin que existan diferencias significativas entre los mismos.

Palabras clave: Fútbol juvenil. Entrenamiento de fuerza bilateral. Entrenamiento de fuerza unilateral. Rendimiento deportivo. Sprint lineal. CMJ.

Abstract. Sprint speed and vertical jumping ability are fundamental requirements to reach high performance in soccer. There is controversy about the type of resistance exercise (bilateral or unilateral) that allows greater transfer to these gestures. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of strength training using squats vs. lunges on vertical jump speed and 20-meter linear sprint in youth soccer players. Seventy-nine subjects randomly divided into three groups participated in the study: lunge training (GE) (n = 28; age = 16.5 ± 1.2 years); squat training (GS) (n = 24; age = 16.3 ± 1.4 years) and control group (GC) (n = 27; age = 16.5 ± 1.2 years). GE and GS performed strength training twice a week during 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, all subjects were tested for maximum speed at CMJ and linear sprint of 20m. All three groups significantly improved performance (p < .05) in the 20m sprint, with the improvement being significantly greater in the experimental groups compared to GC (p < .05), with no differences between the former. No significant improvement in maximum speed at CMJ was verified for either group. Both bilateral and predominantly unilateral strength training appear to be beneficial for the improvement of sprint speed performance in youth soccer players, with no significant differences between them.

Keywords: Youth Soccer. Bilateral resistance training. Unilateral resistance training. Athletic Performance. Lineal sprint. CMJ.


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Cómo citar

Magallanes, A., Magallanes, C., Parodi Feye, A. S., & González-Ramírez, A. (2022). Transferencia de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza al sprint y al salto vertical en futbolistas juveniles: sentadillas vs. estocadas (Transfer of a resistance training program to sprinting and vertical jump in youth soccer players: squats vs. lunges). Retos, 46, 972–979.



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas