Valores de referencia de la velocidad de la marcha en mayores de 65 años (Reference values for gait speed in elderly over 65 years of age)

Autores/as

  • Xabier Río de Frutos Facultad de Educación y Deporte. Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. Universidad de Deusto. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9303-619X
  • José Ramón Sánchez Isla Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad de Deusto. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4873-1633
  • Aitor Santisteban Leguina Facultad de Educación y Deporte. Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. Universidad de Deusto. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4138-4031
  • Patxi León Guereño Facultad de Educación y Deporte. Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. Universidad de Deusto. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2772-9128
  • Iker Sáez Gomez de Cadiñanos
  • Aitor Coca

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v45i0.92924

Palabras clave:

fragilidad; velocidad de la marcha; actividad física; adultos mayores; promoción de la salud (frailty; gait speed; physical activity; older adults; health promoting)

Resumen

 

Objetivo: Proporcionar valores de referencia de la Velocidad de la Marcha (VM) de cuatro metros en personas mayores de 65 años en el País Vasco y establecer puntos de corte para una detección temprana de la fragilidad en la práctica clínica. Diseño: Este es un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en el que se recogen valores de la prueba de VM de cuatro metros a 1,871 personas adultas mayores de 65 años, para luego extraer el tiempo de la prueba (TP) y la VM en metros por segundo. Resultados: Los puntos de corte variaron de 2,99 segundos a 3,95 segundos en TP y de 0,89 a 0,70 en VM en mujeres y de 2,66 segundos a 3,85 segundos en TP y de 0,99 a 0,73 en VM en los hombres. Los resultados de ANOVA, muestran que existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa en TP para grupos de edad (F =41,51 - p<,01) y sexo (F = 15,55 – p<,01) y en VM para edad (F =39,32 - p<,01) y sexo (F = 25,67 - p<,01). La disminución en las dos variables, resaltan que el parámetro del TP aumenta con el paso de los años un 32,97% y el valor de VM disminuye un 21,42% respectivamente, valores clínicamente relevantes. Conclusiones: Los datos muestran que los hombres consiguieron mejores puntuaciones en todos los rangos de edad respecto a las mujeres en la prueba de VM de 4 metros. La prueba de VM de cuatro metros es sencilla y aplicable en atención primaria para la detección temprana de fragilidad.

Abstract. Objetive: To provide reference values for four-metre Gait Speed (GS) in people over 65 years of age in the Basque Country and to establish cut-off points for early detection of frailty in clinical practice. Design: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, in which four-metre GS test values were collected from 1,871 adults over 65 years of age, and then the test time (TT) and GS in metres per second were extracted. Results: The cut-off points ranged from 2.99 seconds to 3.95 seconds in TT and 0.89 to 0.70 in GS in females and from 2.66 seconds to 3.85 seconds in TT and 0.99 to 0.73 in GS in males. ANOVA results show that there is a statistically significant difference in TT for age groups (F =41.51 - p<.01) and sex (F = 15.55 - p<.01) and in GS for age (F =39.32 - p<.01) and sex (F = 25.67 - p<.01). The decrease in the two variables, highlighting that the TT parameter increases over the years by 32.97% and the GS value decreases by 21.42% respectively, clinically relevant values. Conclusions: The data show that men achieved better scores in all age ranges than women in the 4-metre GS test. The four-metre GS test is simple and applicable in primary care for the early detection of frailty.

Citas

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2022-06-21

Cómo citar

de Frutos, X. R., Isla, J. R. S., Leguina, A. S., Guereño, P. L., Sáez Gomez de Cadiñanos, I., & Coca, A. (2022). Valores de referencia de la velocidad de la marcha en mayores de 65 años (Reference values for gait speed in elderly over 65 years of age). Retos, 45, 936–942. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v45i0.92924

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Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas