Análisis de la contribución segmentaria en el rendimiento de las salidas de velocidad. (Analysis of the segmental contribution in sprint start performance)

Palabras clave: Biomecánica, Cálculo de medidas, Técnica de salida, Atletismo (, Biomechanics, Measurement calculation, Sprint Start technique, Athletics)

Resumen

 

En este estudio se ha aplicado un sistema de cálculo para examinar la contribución de cinco grupos de segmentos corporales al desplazamiento horizontal del CM en las salidas de tacos y explorar su relación con la velocidad horizontal del CM al final de 0.1s y 0.312s de la fase de aceleración. Han participado 20 velocistas con récord personal en 100 m de 11,05±0,31s. Se registraron las fuerzas horizontales de reacción mediante dos plataformas de fuerzas sincronizadas a una cámara de vídeo que registraba el plano sagital del movimiento. La contribución de las piernas al final de la fase de aceleración fue del 91.2±2.4 % y la pierna libre del 8.1±1.0 %. El tronco+cabeza es el primer grupo de segmentos que comienza a contribuir al desplazamiento horizontal del CM, alcanzando el 39.3 ± 24.3 % en los primeros 0.1s. Su rápida contribución hacia delante provoca una fuerza reactiva hacia atrás que podría estar relacionada con una dorsiflexión de los tobillos de 8º±3º y 9º±3º, pierna retrasada y adelantada, respectivamente. La contribución temprana de la cabeza+tronco se ha correlacionado positivamente con la velocidad horizontal al final de la fase de aceleración (r=0.622, p=0.003), lo que confirma su importancia como indicador de rendimiento en las salidas de tacos.

Abstract. In this study, a calculation system has been applied to examine the contribution of five groups of body segments to the horizontal displacement of the Center of Mass (CM) in block starts and to explore their relationship with the horizontal velocity of the CM at the end of 0.1s and 0.312s of the acceleration phase. Twenty sprinters with a personal record in 100 m of 11.05 ± 0.31s have participated. The horizontal reaction forces were recorded using two force platforms synchronized to a video camera that recorded the sagittal plane of motion. The contribution of the legs at the end of the acceleration phase was 91.2 ± 2.4% and the free leg was 8.1 ± 1.0%. The trunk + head is the first group of segments that begins to contribute to the horizontal displacement of the CM, reaching 39.3 ± 24.3% in the first 0.1s. His quick forward contribution causes a reactive backward force that could be related to an ankle dorsiflexion of 8º ± 3º and 9º ± 3º, back and front leg, respectively. The early contribution of the head + trunk has been positively correlated with the horizontal velocity at the end of the acceleration phase (r = 0.622, p = 0.003), which confirms its importance as a performance indicator in block starts.

Citas

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Gutiérrez-Cruz, C., Gutiérrez-Dávila, M., & Campos-Granell, J. (2022). Análisis de la contribución segmentaria en el rendimiento de las salidas de velocidad. (Analysis of the segmental contribution in sprint start performance). Retos, 43, 988-995. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.89732
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas