Actividad física y funciones cognitivas en personas mayores: revisión sistemática de los últimos 5 años (Physical activity and cognitive functions in older people: a systematic review of the last 5 years)

Autores/as

  • Nestor Romero Ramos Quality Leadership University
  • Óscar Romero-Ramos UNIVERSIDAD DE MALAGA http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7933-8893
  • Arnoldo José González Suárez UCV University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.79960

Palabras clave:

personas mayores, cognición, ejercicio, calidad de vida, vejez (older people, cognition, exercise, quality of life, adulthood)

Resumen

 

La actividad física (AF) afecta de manera positiva en la salud de las personas a cualquier edad, de acuerdo con los resultados de diferentes estudios en cuanto a la salud cognitiva de las personas mayores, los beneficios son más evidentes. Por esa razón, se ha realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que aborda los efectos de la AF en las funciones cognitivas (FC) de las personas mayores. Se consultaron cuatro bases de datos: Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, y Pub Med, y el buscador Scholar Google. Tras aplicar los criterios de selección, quedaron 31 artículos, que fueron analizados en cuanto a) país, cantidad de individuos y edad, b) variables, y c) enfoque de investigación, duración y resultados. En general, la AF mejora diversas dimensiones de las funciones cognitivas de las personas mayores, donde median factores genéticos y ambientales que tienen que ver con el estilo de vida del individuo. Los tipos de AF se comportan de manera diferencial en cuanto a la dimensión de la función cognitiva que mejoran. La determinación de marcadores bioquímicos (BDNF, dopamina, péptido β-amiloide, gamma gap), de imagenología por resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) y cambios en la actividad eléctrica del cerebro, soportan la hipótesis de que la AF produce cambios en la forma y actividad cerebral, sin que ello suponga cambios significativos en la conducta observada y medible mediante test estandarizados de salud mental. 

Abstract. Physical activity (PA) positively affects people's health at any age, and according to the results of different studies on the cognitive health of older people, the benefits are more evident. For this reason, a systematic review of the scientific literature addressing the effects of PA on the cognitive functions (CF) of older people has been conducted. Four databases were consulted to locate relevant literature: Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and Pub Med, and the Scholar Google search engine. After applying the selection criteria, 31 articles were left, which were analyzed in terms of a) country, number of individuals and age, b) variables, and c) research approach, duration and results. In general, PA improves several dimensions of cognitive functions of older people, where genetic and environmental factors that have to do with the individual's lifestyle are mediated. Types of PA behave differently in terms of the dimension of cognitive function they improve. The determination of biochemical markers (BDNF, dopamine, amyloid peptide β, gamma gap), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) and changes in the electrical activity of the brain support the hypothesis that PA produces changes in brain shape and activity, without significant changes in behavior observed and measurable by standardized tests of mental health.

Biografía del autor/a

Óscar Romero-Ramos, UNIVERSIDAD DE MALAGA

Profesor Titular Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Didáctica de las Lenguas, las Artes y el Deporte

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Publicado

2021-01-01

Cómo citar

Romero Ramos, N., Romero-Ramos, Óscar, & González Suárez, A. J. (2021). Actividad física y funciones cognitivas en personas mayores: revisión sistemática de los últimos 5 años (Physical activity and cognitive functions in older people: a systematic review of the last 5 years). Retos, 39, 1017–1023. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.79960

Número

Sección

Monográfico: Actividad física y deportiva en personas mayores. Castillo-Rodrígue