Capacidades físicas y su relación con la memoria, cálculo matemático, razonamiento lingüístico y creatividad en adolescentes (Physical capacities and their relation with memory, mathematical calculation, linguistic reasoning, and creativity in adolescents

Autores/as

  • Alberto Mezcua-Hidalgo Universidad de Jaén
  • Alberto Ruiz-Ariza Universidad de Jaén
  • Vania A. Ferreira Brandão de Loureiro Escola Superior de Educaçao. Instituto Politécnico de Beja
  • Emilio J. Martínez-López Universidad de Jaén

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.71089

Palabras clave:

capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, Educación física, rendimiento cognitivo, pensamiento divergente (Cardiorespiratory fitness, Physical Education, cognitive performance, divergent thinking)

Resumen

El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la asociación del nivel de condición física con variables de rendimiento cognitivo como memoria, cálculo matemático, velocidad de razonamiento lingüístico y creatividad. La muestra estaba formada por 163 adolescentes (78 chicas y 85 chicos) de 13,9 ±1,4 años. La memoria se evaluó mediante una adaptación propia basada en la prueba RIAS. Para el cálculo matemático y el razonamiento lingüístico se usaron tests ad hoc y para la creatividad el test CREA. Los análisis mostraron que la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria de los jóvenes se asocia a mejores niveles de memoria (p = ,027), cálculo matemático (p = ,035), razonamiento lingüístico (p = ,014) y creatividad (p = ,005), independientemente de la edad, sexo e índice de masa corporal de los jóvenes. Sin embargo, mejores niveles de velocidad-agilidad, fuerza y flexibilidad no se relacionaron con mejoras en ninguna de las variables dependientes analizadas (todos p > ,05). Se concluye que la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria es el componente de la condición física que en mayor medida se relaciona con altas capacidades cognitivas de los jóvenes. Se sugiere, que desde la Educación Física se implementen programas específicos para incrementar el nivel de capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, con prácticas sistemáticas especialmente durante el periodo extraescolar. 


Abstract: The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of the level of physical fitness with variables of cognitive performance such as memory, mathematical calculation, speed of linguistic reasoning, and creativity. The sample consisted of 163 adolescents (78 girls and 85 boys) aged 13.9 ± 1.4 years old. Memory was evaluated through an own adaptation based on the RIAS test. Ad hoc tests were used for mathematical calculation and linguistic reasoning, and the CREA test for creativity. The analyses showed that youth’s cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better levels of memory (p = ,027), mathematical calculation (p = ,035), linguistic reasoning (p = ,014), and creativity (p =,005) regardless of age, sex, and body mass index. However, better levels of speed-agility, strength, and flexibility were not related with improvements in any of the dependent variables analyzed (all p > ,05). Cardiorespiratory fitness is the physical fitness component with the highest relation with cognitive abilities in youngsters. We suggest the implementation of specific programs aimed at increasing cardiorespiratory fitness levels through Physical Education, especially employing systematic physical activity practices during the extracurricular period.

Citas

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Publicado

2020-01-01

Cómo citar

Mezcua-Hidalgo, A., Ruiz-Ariza, A., Ferreira Brandão de Loureiro, V. A., & Martínez-López, E. J. (2020). Capacidades físicas y su relación con la memoria, cálculo matemático, razonamiento lingüístico y creatividad en adolescentes (Physical capacities and their relation with memory, mathematical calculation, linguistic reasoning, and creativity in adolescents. Retos, 37, 473–479. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.71089

Número

Sección

Monográfico: Metodologías Activas, Modelos de Enseñanza-Aprendizaje. Antonio Bae

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