Esfuerzo cardiosaludable en la jornada escolar. Implicaciones para las escuelas (Heart-healthy effort in the school day. Implications for schools)

Autores/as

  • Luis Moral Moreno CES Don Bosco
  • Vicente Martínez de Haro Universidad Autónoma de Madrid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9753-103X
  • Francisco Miguel Tobal UCM

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.70032

Palabras clave:

Actividad física, prepúberes, árboles de decisión, educación primaria, jerarquía, modelos socio-ecológicos (Physical activity, prepubescents, school day, predictors, decision tree, hierarchy, socio-ecological theory)

Resumen

Introducción. El estudio analizó los niveles de actividad física cardiosaludable (AFCS) de los escolares de primaria en la jornada escolar y la jerarquía de factores predictores de dicha conducta activa. Metodología. Estudio transversal, prospectivo, correlacional e inferencial. Se recabaron datos de diferente naturaleza (fenotipo sexual, tipología ponderal, resistencia cardiaca, capacidad aeróbica, expresividad emocional y social, ansiedad-rasgo, tipología sociométrica, nivel de sedentarismo, tipo de centro y jornada) en un total de 58 sujetos (32 niños y 26 niñas) (12 años) de 24 centros. Tras registrar la FC durante 5 jornadas escolares, se analizó el tiempo invertido en AFCS en FC ≥50% FC de reserva. Posteriormente, se aplicó análisis correlacional y técnica árbol de decisiones determinando la relación jerárquica de rasgos predictores de AFCS (α= 0,05). Resultados y conclusiones. Los varones alcanzarían en el recreo más AFCS que las niñas (p min/sem =0,03; p% tiempo/sem =0,02). Los chicos populares acumularían más AFCS que el resto (R2=38,85). Los escolares con una resistencia aeróbica inferior a la media acumularían más AFCS en Ed. Física que el resto (R2=8,39). Quienes muestran índices intermedios de expresividad emocional alcanzarían más AFCS que el resto en Ed. Artística y otras actividades escolares minoritarias, donde los introvertidos “activos y muy activos” alcanzarían más AFCS que los introvertidos “poco activos y sedentarios” (R2=30,09). El supuesto ecológico es insuficiente para explicar el nivel de AFCS de los escolares durante la jornada escolar.


Abstract. Introduction. The study analyzed the levels of cardio-healthy physical activity (CHPA) of elementary school children in the school day and the hierarchy of predictive factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional, prospective, correlational, and inferential study. Fifty-eight children (32 boys and 26 girls) (11.88 ± 0.32 years) enrolled in 24 schools provided data of sexual phenotype, weight type, cardiac endurance, aerobic capacity, social and emotional expressiveness, anxiety, sociometric type, sedentary level, type of center, and school day. After registering the subjects’ heart rate with Polar® monitors for 5 consecutive school days, the CHPA was analyzed (time spent in an effort of ≥50% HR reserve). Subsequently, correlational analysis and decision tree technique were carried out to determine the hierarchical relationship of CHPA predictive factors (α = 0.05). Results and conclusions. Boys would reach more CHPA than girls at recess (pmin/sem = 0.03; p% time/sem = 0.02). Among the former, the popular ones would accumulate more CHPA than the rest (R2= 38.85). Schoolchildren with lower aerobic endurance would accumulate more CHPA in Physical Education than the rest (R2= 8.39). Those who show intermediate rates of emotional expressiveness would achieve more CHPA than the rest in Artistic and other minority school activities, where active and very active introverts would achieve more CHPA than little active and sedentary introverts (R2= 30.09). The ecological model is insufficient to explain the level of CHPA of school children during the school day.

Citas

Álvarez, J. L. H., Buendía, R. V., Curiel, D. A., Puerta, I. G., Crespo, C. L., Rodríguez, A. L., … Oliva, F. J. C. (2007). Evaluación de ámbitos de la capacidad biológica y de hábitos de práctica de actividad física: estudio de la población escolar española. Revista de Educación, (343), 177–178.
Armstrong, N., Tomkinson, G., & Ekelund, U. (2011). Aerobic fitness and its relationship to sport, exercise training and habitual physical activity during youth. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(11), 849–858.
Asociación Médica Mundial. (2008). Declaración de Helsinki de la Asociación Médica Mundial. Principios éticos para las investigaciones médicas en seres humanos. 59a Asamblea General de La Asociación Médica Mundial.
Beighle, A., Erwin, H., Morgan, C. F., & Alderman, B. (2012). Children’s in-school and out-of-school physical activity during two seasons. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(1), 103–107.
Biddle, S. J. H., Atkin, A. J., Cavill, N., & Foster, C. (2011). Correlates of physical activity in youth: a review of quantitative systematic reviews. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4(1), 25–49.
Brettschneider, W., & Naul, R. (2004). Study on young people’s lifestyles and sedentariness and the role of sport in the context of education and as a means of restoring the balance. Final report. Paderborn, Germany: European Union.
Cantó, R., & Ruiz, L. M. (2005). Comportamiento motor espontáneo en el patio de recreo escolar: análisis de las diferencias por género en la ocupación del espacio durante el recreo escolar. RICYDE: Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 1(1), 28–45.
Chawla, N., & Thamarangsi, T. (2014). Effectiveness of School Built Environment on Physical Activity in Children: a Systematic Review. Journal of Health Science, 23(4).
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(4), 557.
de Vet, E., Ridder, D. T. D. De, & Wit, J. B. F. De. (2011). Environmental correlates of physical activity and dietary behaviours among young people: a systematic review of reviews. Obesity Reviews, 12(5), e130–e142.
del Castillo Andrés, Ó., Granados, S. R., Ramírez, T. G., & Mesa, M. del C. C. (2012). Gender equity in physical education: The use of information. Sex Roles, 67(1–2), 108–121.
der Horst, K. Van, Paw, M., Twisk, J. W. R., & Mechelen, W. Van. (2007). A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentariness in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(8), 1241.
Devís Devís, J., Beltrán Carrillo, V. J., & Peiró Velert, C. (2015). Exploring socio-ecological factors influencing active and inactive Spanish students in years 12 and 13. Sport, Education and Society, 20(3), 361–380.
Dunn, J. C., Dunn, J. G. H., & Bayduza, A. (2007). Perceived athletic competence, sociometric status, and loneliness in elementary school children. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30(3).
Europea/EACEA/Eurydice, C. (2013). La educación física y el deporte en los centros escolares de Europa. Informe de Eurydice. Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones de la Unión Europea.
Foley, L., Maddison, R., Olds, T., & Ridley, K. (2012). Self-report use-of-time tools for the assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in young people: systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 13(8), 711–722.
Granell, J., Rodríguez, J., & Fraile, M. (2002). Análisis de la intensidad del esfuerzo en el test de Cooper para la valoración de la condición física en alumnos de secundaria. REEFy D, 9(4), 11–15.
Grimminger, E. (2014). Getting into teams in physical education and exclusion processes among students. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 9(2), 155–171.
Hellín Rodríguez, G. (2007). Motivación, autoconcepto físico, disciplina y orientación disposicional en estudiantes de educación física. Tesis docoral. Universidad de Murcia.
Hills, A. P., Dengel, D. R., & Lubans, D. R. (2015). Supporting Public Health Priorities: Recommendations for Physical Education and Physical Activity Promotion in Schools. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 57(4).
Hohepa, M., Scragg, R., Schofield, G., Kolt, G., & Schaaf, D. (2007). Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4(1), 54.
Hume Figueroa, M., & Sánchez Núñez, M. T. (2008). Adolescentes intelectualmente bien dotados. Una investigación en la provincia de Toledo. Revista Docencia e Investigación. Universidad de Castilla La Mancha.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). (2013). Educating the student body: Taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Kirby, J., Levin, K. A., & Inchley, J. (2011). Associations between the school environment and adolescent girls’ physical activity. Health Education Research, 27(1), 101–114.
Kowalski, K. C., Crocker, P. R. E., Donen, R. M., & Honours, B. (2004). The physical activity questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C) and adolescents (PAQ-A) manual. College of Kinesiology. University of Saskatchewan.
Livesey, D., Mow, M. L., Toshack, T., & Zheng, Y. (2011). The relationship between motor performance and peer relations in 9- to 12-year-old children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(4), 581–588.
Macdonald-Wallis, K., Jago, R., Page, A. S., Brockman, R., & Thompson, J. L. (2011). School-based friendship networks and children’s physical activity: A spatial analytical approach. Social Science & Medicine, 73(1), 6–12.
Martin, C. L., Fabes, R. A., & Hanish, L. D. (2014). Gendered-Peer Relationships in Educational Contexts. In Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 47, pp. 151-187). JAI.
Martín, E. (2011). The Influence of Diverse Interaction Contexts on Students’ Sociometric Status. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14(01), 88–98.
Martin, K., Bremner, A., Salmon, J., Rosenberg, M., & Giles‐Corti, B. (2012). School and individual‐level characteristics are associated with children’s moderate to vigorous‐intensity physical activity during school recess. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(5), 469–477.
Martins, J., Marques, A., Peralta, M., Palmeira, A., & Da Costa, F. C. (2017). Correlates of physical activity in young people. RETOS. Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, (31), 292–299.
McKenzie, T. L., & Lounsbery, M. a. F. (2013). Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84(4), 419-430.
Moral, L. (2015). Estudio del Compromiso Cardiovascular durante la jornada escolar en Educación Primaria. Tesis doctoral. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
Moral, L. (2017). Teorías y modelos que explican y promueven la práctica de actividad física en niños y adolescentes. Educación y Futuro: Revista de Investigación Aplicada y Experiencias Educativas, (36), 177–208.
Moral, L. (2018). Nivel de actividad física cardiosaludable en Educación Física en educación primaria: expectativas y algunas evidencias. Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity, 4(1), 95–110.
Morton, K. L., Atkin, A. J., Corder, K., Suhrcke, M., & Sluijs, E. M. F. (2016). The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed-studies systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 17(2), 142–158.
Mura, G., Rocha, N. B. F., Helmich, I., Budde, H., Machado, S., Wegner, M., … others. (2015). Physical activity interventions in schools for improving lifestyle in European countries. Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 11(1).
Murillo, B., García, E., Generelo, E., Bush, P. L., Zaragoza, J., Julian, J. A., & García, L. (2013). Promising school-based strategies and intervention guidelines to increase physical activity of adolescents. Health Education Research, 28(3), 523–538.
Naylor, P.-J., Nettlefold, L., Race, D., Hoy, C., Ashe, M. C., Higgins, J. W., & McKay, H. A. (2015). Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: a systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 72, 95–115.
Ommundsen, Y., Gundersen, K. A., & Mjaavatn, P. E. (2010). Fourth graders’ social standing with peers: A prospective study on the role of first grade physical activity, weight status, and motor proficiency. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 54(4), 377–394.
Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2010). Recomendaciones mundiales sobre actividad física para la salud. Ginebra: OMS.
Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., & Castillo, M. J. (2013). Actividad física, condición física y sobrepeso en niños y adolescentes: evidencia procedente de estudios epidemiológicos. Endocrinología y Nutrición, 60(8), 458–469.
Patnode, C. D., Lytle, L. A., Erickson, D. J., Sirard, J. R., Barr-Anderson, D., & Story, M. (2010). The relative influence of demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors on physical activity among boys and girls. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 7, 79.
Rhodes, R. E., & Smith, N. E. I. (2006). Personality correlates of physical activity: a review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(12), 958–965.
Rodríguez-Navarro, H., García-Monge, A., & Rubio-Campos, M. del C. (2014). The process of integration of newcomers at school: students and gender networking during school recess. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 27(3), 349–363.
Sallis, J. F., Bull, F., Guthold, R., Heath, G. W., Inoue, S., Kelly, P., … others. (2016). Progress in physical activity over the Olympic quadrennium. The Lancet, 388(10051), 1325–1336.
Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(5), 963–975.
Salvy, S. J., & Bowker, J. C. (2014). Peers and Obesity during Childhood and Adolescence: A Review of the Empirical Research on Peers, Eating, and Physical Activity. J. Obes. Weight Loss Ther., 4(207), 2.
Seisdedos, N. (1990). Adaptación española del cuestionario: State-trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Madrid: TEA Ediciones.
Seisdedos, N., Cattell, R. B., & Porter, R. B. (1982). CPQ: Cuestionario de Personalidad para Niños (8-12 años). Manual. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.
Silva, G., Andersen, L. B., Aires, L., Mota, J., Oliveira, J., & Ribeiro, J. C. (2013). Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(12), 1359–1367.
Silva, R. C., & Malina, R. M. (2000). Level of physical activity in adolescents from Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 16(4), 1091–1097.
Skrede, T., Stavnsbo, M., Aadland, E., Aadland, K. N., Anderssen, S. A., Resaland, G. K., & Ekelund, U. (2017). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but not sedentary time, predicts changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in 10-y-old children: The Active Smarter Kids Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105(6), 1391-1398.
Sluijs, E. M. F., Jones, N. R., Jones, A. P., Sharp, S. J., Harrison, F., & Griffin, S. J. (2011). School‐level correlates of physical activity intensity in 10‐year‐old children. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 6(2Part2), e574–e581.
Smith, P. K., Bowers, L., Binney, V., & Cowie, H. (2014). Relationships of children involved in bully/victim problems at school. In D. Faulkner, K. ‎Littleton, & M. Woodhead (Eds.), Making sense of social development (pp. 120–136). Routledge.
Sobradillo, B., & Eizaguirre, F. F. O. (2004). Curvas y tablas de crecimiento (estudios longitudinal y transversal). Bilbao: Fundación Faustino Orbegozo Eizaguirre.
Solmon, M. A. (2015). Optimizing the role of physical education in promoting physical activity: A social-ecological approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(4), 329–337.
Sterdt, E., Liersch, S., & Walter, U. (2014). Correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents: A systematic review of reviews. Health Education Journal, 73(1), 72–89.
Uijtdewilligen, L., Nauta, J., Singh, A. S., van Mechelen, W., Twisk, J. W., van der Horst, K., & Chinapaw, M. J. (2011). Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in young people: a review and quality synthesis of prospective studies. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(11), 896–905.
United Nations Educational Scientific, & Organization., C. (2015). Quality physical education: Guidelines for policy-makers. Paris: Author.
Vierimaa, M., & Côté, J. (2016). An Exploration of Sociometric Status and Peer Relations in Youth Sport. Journal of Sport Behavior, 39(1), 72.
Webster, C., & Suzuki, N. (2014). Land of the Rising Pulse: A Social Ecological Perspective of Physical Activity Opportunities for Schoolchildren in Japan. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(3), 304-325.
Weichselbaum, E., Hooper, B., Ballam, R., Buttriss, J., Strigler, F., Oberritter, H., … Valero, T. (2012). Physical activity in schools across Europe. Nutrition Bulletin, 37(3), 262–269.
Zhang, T., Solmon, M. A., Gao, Z., & Kosma, M. (2012). Promoting school students’ physical activity: a social ecological perspective. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24(1), 92–105.

Descargas

Publicado

2020-01-01

Cómo citar

Moral Moreno, L., Martínez de Haro, V., & Miguel Tobal, F. (2020). Esfuerzo cardiosaludable en la jornada escolar. Implicaciones para las escuelas (Heart-healthy effort in the school day. Implications for schools). Retos, 37, 70–77. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.70032

Número

Sección

Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas