Análisis de la veracidad de determinadas creencias asociadas habitualmente al entrenamiento de fuerza. Una revisión narrativa (Analysis of the veracity of certain beliefs frequently associated to resistance training. A narrative review)

  • Pablo Prieto González PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY
  • Peter Sagat PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY
  • Mehdi Ben Brahim PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY
  • Jaromir Sedlacek PRESOV UNIVERSITY
Palabras clave: Entrenamiento concurrente, resistencia, flexibilidad, fuerza (Concurrent training, endurance, flexibility, strength)

Resumen

El objetivo del estudio fue contrastar la veracidad de las siguientes creencias: 1-El entrenamiento de fuerza y resistencia es incompatible. 2-El entrenamiento de fuerza limita la flexibilidad. 3-Las rutinas divididas son más eficaces que las de cuerpo entero. 4-El entrenamiento de fuerza no es útil para la pérdida de peso, o la mejora de la composición corporal. Se realizó una búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: ProQuest, Google Scholar, Scopus, ScienceDirect y Web of Science. Los criterios de selección fueron: a) Artículos escritos en Español o en Inglés. b) Investigaciones primarias con metodología experimental o cuasi-experimental. c) Escritos entre el año 2015 y 2019, salvo para los apartados 2 y 3, que se amplió hasta 2000 y 1990 respectivamente, debido a la escasez de publicaciones. d) La población objeto de estudio fueron adultos sanos que no practicaban deporte a nivel profesional o semiprofesional. e) Artículos que recogen exclusivamente adaptaciones logradas mediante una intervención con entrenamiento. Analizados los estudios, se pudo determinar que en adultos sanos: 1- El entrenamiento de fuerza y resistencia es compatible. 2- El entrenamiento de fuerza no deteriora la flexibilidad, y podría incluso mejorarla. 3- En virtud de los estudios existente, las rutinas divididas y las de cuerpo entero son igualmente eficaces para incrementar la fuerza. Las rutinas de cuerpo entero podrían generar mayor hipertrofia muscular. 4- El entrenamiento de fuerza es eficaz en la mejora de la composición corporal, y podría tener un impacto positivo en biomarcadores cardiovasculares y metabólicos.


Abstract. The purpose of the study was to verify the veracity of the following beliefs: 1-Resistance and endurance training are incompatible. 2-Resistance training reduces flexibility. 3-Split body routines are more effective than full-body routines. 4-Resistance training is not useful neither in weight loss programs, nor to change body composition. The following databases were searched: ProQuest, Google Scholar, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. The selection criteria were: a) Articles written in Spanish or in English b) Primary research following an experimental or quasi-experimental methodology c) Written between 2015 and 2019, except for section 2 and 3, which was extended until 2000 and 1990 respectively, due to the shortage of publications d) The target population of study were healthy adults who did not practice sports at the professional or semi-professional level e) Papers which include only adaptations achieved through training interventions. Once the studies were analyzed, it was concluded that in healthy adults: 1-The combination of resistance and endurance training is compatible. 2- Strength training does not decrease flexibility, and it could even improve it. 3- On the basis of existing studies, split and full-body routines are equally effective in improving strength. Full-body routines could generate higher muscle hypertrophy. 4- Strength training is effective in improving body composition, and could make a positive impact on cardiovascular and metabolic biomarkers.

Biografía del autor/a

Pablo Prieto González, PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY
FACULTY MEMBER. PHYSICAL EDCUATION HEALTH AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT. PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY.
Peter Sagat, PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR. PHYSICAL EDCUATION HEALTH AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT. PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY.
Mehdi Ben Brahim, PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY
FACULTY MEMBER. PHYSICAL EDCUATION HEALTH AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT. PRINCE SULTAN UNIVERSITY.
Jaromir Sedlacek, PRESOV UNIVERSITY
PROFESSOR. PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. PRESOV UNIVERSITY.

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Publicado
2019-10-21
Cómo citar
Prieto González, P., Sagat, P., Ben Brahim, M., & Sedlacek, J. (2019). Análisis de la veracidad de determinadas creencias asociadas habitualmente al entrenamiento de fuerza. Una revisión narrativa (Analysis of the veracity of certain beliefs frequently associated to resistance training. A narrative review). Retos, 38(38), 773-781. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v38i38.69739
Sección
Revisiones teóricas