Umbral Anaeróbico. Problemas conceptuales y aplicaciones prácticas en deportes de resistencia (Anaerobic Threshold. Conceptual problems and practical applications in endurance sports)

Emilio Fernandez Rodriguez, Oscar Romero Ramos, Rafael Merino Marbán, Alejandro Cañas del Palacio

Resumen


El objeto de este artículo fue mostrar el excesivo entramado terminológico relacionado con el entrenamiento del umbral anaeróbico (UAN). Faude, Kindermann y Meyer (2009) encontraron 25 acepciones diferentes sobre el termino umbral. A pesar de ello, se dan unas pautas didácticas sobre diversos aspectos relacionados con su entrenamiento (pruebas de esfuerzo, frecuencia cardiaca, factores de rendimiento, planificación…). Se describe como entrenan el UAN los mejores fondistas del mundo, como lo distribuyen en zonas de entreno o, en qué parte de la temporada lo aplican en función de los modelos de planificación más habituales. En general, los fondistas de máximo nivel lo aplican de forma polarizada y en poca cantidad respecto al volumen total del año y a otras zonas de entrenamiento.


Abstract. The purpose of this paper was to highlight the excessive terminological framework related with anaerobic threshold (ANt). Faude, Kindermann and Meyer (2009) found 25 different definitions about the term threshold. Despite this, it is possible to give didactic guidelines on various aspects related to their training (lab test, heart rate, factors of performance, scheduling). These guidelines show how the best athletes in the world train the ANt, how they distribute it in training zones, or in what part of the season they apply it according to the most usual planning models. In general, the top-level runners apply it in a polarized way, as well as in a small amount with respect to the total volume of the year and other training zones.


Palabras clave


umbrales, entrenamiento de resistencia, planificación, lactato (thresholds, endurance training, schedule, zones, lactate)

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