Programa de prevención de lesiones para la mejora de la salud articular del hombro en jóvenes triatletas (Injury prevention program for the improvement of shoulder health in young triathletes)

Manuel Jesús Cabeza-Carmona, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Emilio Villa-González

Resumen


La aparición de lesiones por sobreuso del complejo articular del hombro en la disciplina de natación en triatletas jóvenes anima a una profundización en el estudio de métodos efectivos para la prevención de dichas lesiones. Objetivo: Analizar la efectividad de un programa de intervención diseñado para la prevención de lesiones del complejo articular del hombro en la disciplina de natación en jóvenes triatletas. Métodos: 26 jóvenes (edad entre 8-17 años) fueron aleatorizados en Grupo-Intervención (GI, n=17), y Grupo-Control (GC, n=9). La salud del complejo articular del hombro se evaluó antes y después de un programa de intervención (cuatro semanas de duración: dos-sesiones/30-minutos/semana), mediante los siguientes test: 1) Test del ángulo de cabeza adelantada–Ángulo hombro adelantado, 2) Test de Rotación Glenohumeral, 3) Test de opresión durante la abducción horizontal de hombro, 4) Test Longitud del Pectoral menor. Se utilizó un análisis intra-sujeto y otro análisis inter-sujeto para analizar las diferencias significativas (p<.05) en las variables de estudio, antes y después del programa de intervención. Resultados: Tras el programa de intervención se observaron mejoras significativas en el GI comparado con el GC en las variables: ángulo de adelantamiento de la cabeza (p<.001), rotación interna del hombro dominante (p=.001), rotación externa del hombro dominante, (p=.046), rotación interna del hombro no dominante (p=0.002), abducción horizontal del hombro (p=.003), longitud del pectoral derecho (p<0.001) y longitud del pectoral izquierdo (p=.001). Conclusión: Un programa de intervención diseñado para la prevención de lesiones en el complejo articular del hombro de cuatro semanas de duración (dos-sesiones/30-minutos/semana), fue efectivo mejorando la salud articular y movilidad del hombro en jóvenes triatletas.

Abstract. The onset of overuse injuries of the shoulder joint complex in the discipline of swimming in young triathletes prompts the need to deepen the study of effective methods for the prevention of such lesions. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of an intervention program designed for the prevention of injuries of the shoulder joint complex in the discipline of swimming in young triathletes. Methods: 26 youngsters (aged 8-17 years) were randomly assigned to an Intervention Group (GI, n = 17), and a Control Group (GC, n = 9). The health of the shoulder joint complex was evaluated before and after an intervention program (four weeks duration: two-sessions / 30-minutes / week), using the following tests: (1) Forward head angle test, Forward shoulder translation test, (2) Rotation Glenohumeral internal and external test, (3) Oppression during horizontal abduction of shoulder test, (4) Pectoral minor length test. An intra-subject and an inter-subject analyses were used to analyze significant differences (p <.05) in the study variables, before and after the intervention program. Results: After the intervention program, significant improvements in GI were observed compared to the CG in the variables: head advancement angle (p<.001), internal rotation of the dominant shoulder (p=.002), external rotation of the dominant shoulder (p=.046), internal rotation of the shoulder (p=.002), horizontal abduction of the shoulder (p=.003), right pectoral length (p<.001) and left pectoral length (p=.001). Conclusion: A 4-week (2-session / 30-minutes / week) intervention program designed for the prevention of shoulder injuries was effective in improving shoulder health in young triathletes.


Palabras clave


prevención, lesiones, triatlón, natación, hombro, articulación, jóvenes (prevention, injuries, triathlon, swimming, shoulder, join, young)

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Referencias


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