Nivel de desarrollo madurativo, actividad física y calidad del sueño en chicas adolescentes: proyecto DADOS (Maturational development, physical activity, and sleep quality in adolescent girls: DADOS project)

Maria Reyes Beltran Valls, Mireia Adelantado-Renau, Daniel Segura-Ayala, Míriam Toledo-Bonifás, Diego Moliner-Urdiales

Resumen


El sueño y la actividad física (AF) son hábitos fundamentales para la salud durante la adolescencia ya que favorecen un óptimo desarrollo físico, cognitivo y emocional. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la influencia del desarrollo madurativo sobre la calidad del sueño en niñas adolescentes, así como los niveles AF diaria según su nivel de desarrollo. Se evaluó el nivel de desarrollo madurativo de 129 chicas participantes del proyecto DADOS a través de la escala de Tanner. Se dividió al grupo en dos según su nivel de desarrollo madurativo (Tanner <4; Tanner ≥4). La calidad del sueño fue evaluada mediante la versión española del cuestionario Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) y se crearon los grupos óptima (PSQI ≤5) y mala (PSQI >5) calidad del sueño. Se evaluó la AF mediante acelerometría triaxial. El índice de masa corporal (IMC, kg/m2) se incluyó como covariable. No se encontraron diferencias en la puntuación total del PSQI en función del desarrollo madurativo (p >.05). Las adolescentes con mayor nivel de desarrollo mostraron menor AF diaria (p <.05). El porcentaje de chicas que presentaba óptima/mala calidad del sueño fue similar entre los grupos de desarrollo madurativo (p >.05). Las chicas con nivel de desarrollo madurativo superior (Tanner ≥4) no mostraron mayor riesgo de tener mala calidad del sueño (OR=1.08, 95%CI 0.51–2.34), teniendo en cuenta su IMC y AF diaria. En conclusión, el nivel de desarrollo madurativo de las adolescentes no parece estar relacionado con la calidad del sueño pero sí con la AF. 

Abstract: Sleep and physical activity (PA) are fundamental behaviors for adolescents’ health since they are related to optimal physical, cognitive, and emotional development. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of the maturational development on sleep quality in adolescent girls, as well as to evaluate the daily PA level based on the level of maturational development. The level of maturational development of 129 girls participating in the DADOS project was assessed through the Tanner scale. Two groups were created (Tanner <4 and Tanner ≥4). Sleep quality was assessed using the Spanish version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), based on which the following groups were created: optimal (PSQI ≤5) and poor (PSQI >5) sleep quality. PA was measured with triaxial accelerometers. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was included in the study as a covariable. No significant differences were found in the total PSQI score between the maturational development groups (p >.05). Adolescents with higher maturational development performed less PA (p <.05). The percentage of girls who presented optimal/poor sleep quality was similar between the two maturational development groups (p >.05). Girls with higher maturational development (Tanner ≥4) did not show increased risk of poor sleep quality (OR=1.08, 95%CI 0.51-2.34), considering their BMI and daily PA. In conclusion, the maturational development of adolescent girls does not seem to be related with sleep quality but it influences the PA levels.


Palabras clave


calidad del sueño, actividad física, adolescencia, desarrollo madurativo, género (Sleep quality, physical activity, adolescence, maturational development, gender)

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Referencias


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