Revisión sistemática sobre los estudios de intervención de actividad física para el tratamiento de la obesidad (Systematic Review of Physical Activity Programs for the treatment of Obesity)

Jorge Cuadri Fernández, Inmaculada Tornero Quiñones, Ángela Sierra Robles, Jesús Manuel Sáez Padilla

Resumen


El objetivo de esta revisión fue conocer el estado actual del tratamiento de la obesidad en adultos mediante estudios de intervención que apliquen la Actividad Física (AF) como uno de los pilares fundamentales. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Pubmed, ISI Web of Science y Scopus descartando en la búsqueda aquellos resultados referentes a niños, mujeres embarazadas y personas mayores. De los 850 resultados iniciales, se seleccionaron 27 artículos referentes a programas de actividad física que combinaban de diferente forma el ejercicio físico y la dieta para el tratamiento de la obesidad. En conclusión, aunque diferentes programas lograban reducir la obesidad, los más eficaces fueron los que combinaron dieta y ejercicio físico, siendo más recomendables aquellos en los que se realizaba una combinación de entrenamiento aeróbico y de fuerza resistencia muscular. Otros aspectos como sesiones para el cambio del comportamiento y el apoyo de las nuevas tecnologías pueden ayudar a la eficacia de la intervención. 


Abstract. The aim of this review was to highlight the current state of obesity treatment programs that include physical activity. The search was performed in Pubmed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus databases, with programs applied in children, pregnant women, and older people being excluded from the final sample. Of the 850 initial results, we selected 27 articles regarding programs implementing exercise and diet for the treatment of obesity. In conclusion, though different programs may induce weight loss, the most efficacious incorporate exercise and diet, programs combining muscular endurance and resistance being the most recommended. Other aspects like behavioral change sessions and new technologies support may imply greater weight loss.


Palabras clave


composición corporal, revisión sistemática, programas de intervención, adultos, ejercicio físico (body composition, systematic review, intervention programs, adults, fitness)

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Referencias


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