¿Puede el entrenamiento de fuerza prevenir y controlar la dinapenia pediátrica? (Can resistance training prevent and control pediatric dynapenia?)

Iván Chulvi Medrano, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo


La dinapenia pediátrica es una condición seria que ha visto incrementada su prevalencia entre los niños de hoy en día. Este fenómeno está caracterizado por bajos niveles de fuerza y potencia que no son consecuencia de una enfermedad y que generan limitaciones funcionales en el rendimiento de las habilidades motrices, así como alteraciones cardiometabólicas. Para evitar esta condición e incrementar la salud y el bienestar de los niños y adolescentes es necesario incluir, dentro de la práctica regular de actividad física, un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza. Se ha comprobado que el entrenamiento de fuerza tiene un papel fundamental a la hora de prevenir y controlar la dinapenia pediátrica. No obstante, requiere de una combinación específica entre investigadores, médicos y entrenadores de forma que permita diseñar e implementar de forma segura programas de entrenamiento de fuerza progresivos y adecuados a las necesidades y habilidades de los niños. Esta revisión recoge las principales aportaciones respecto al entrenamiento de fuerza pediátrico y proporciona datos basados en la evidencia para prevenir y controlar la dinapenia pediátrica en los niños.  La participación regular en programas de entrenamiento de fuerza contribuirá a prevenir la dinapenia pediátrica en las primeras etapas de la vida. Por tanto, los niños tendrán más posibilidad de ganar confianza y de adquirir las competencias necesarias para aumentar sus posibilidades físicas y de esta forma podrán cumplir en mayor y mejor medida la cantidad de ejercicio diario recomendado. La intervención se hace especialmente necesaria para mejorar los niveles de fuerza y potencia en los niños ya que, de no ser así, se dificultará en gran medida la posibilidad de prevenir una cascada de consecuencias adversas para la salud en etapas posteriores.

Abstract. Pediatric dynapenia is a serious condition with a growing prevalence within youth nowadays. This phenomenon is characterized by low levels of strength and power not provoked by any disease, which produce functional limitations in motor skill performance and consequent cardio-metabolic abnormalities. In order to improve this condition and enhance the health and well-being of children and adolescents, regular participation in physical activities including resistance training is needed. The unique role of resistance training in preventing and managing pediatric dynapenia implies a joint effort from researchers, clinicians and practitioners in order to design, implement and safely progress developmentally appropriate resistance exercise programs consistent with each child’s needs and abilities. This review synthesizes the latest information on youth resistance training and provides evidence-based rationale for preventing and managing pediatric dynapenia in youth. Regular participation in resistance exercise programs in early ages prevent pediatric dynapenia. Consequently, youth will be more likely to gain confidence and competence on their physical abilities and accumulate the recommended amount of daily exercise. Interventions in schools and communities are needed to increase muscular strength and power in youth, with the aim to prevent inevitable cascade of adverse health consequences later in individuals’ life.

Palabras clave

Pre-adolescents, muscular strength, training, childhood, health)

Texto completo:



Allen, B.A., Hannon, J.C., Burns, R.D., & Williams, S.M. (2014). Effect of a core conditioning intervention on tests of trunk muscular endurance in school-aged children. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(7), 2063-2070.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Strength training by children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 121, 835-840.

Andersen, K., Rasmussen, F., Held, C., Neovius, M., Tynelius, P., & Sundström, J. (2015). Exercise capacity and muscle strength and risk of vascular disease and arrhythmia in 1.1 million young Swedish men: cohort study. British Medical Journal, 351:h4543.

Andersen, L., Wedderkopp, N., & Leboeuf-Yde, C (2006). Association between back pain and physical fitness in adolescents. Spine, 31(15), 1740-1744.

Annesi, J.J., Westcott, W.L., Faigenbaum, A.D., & Unruh, J.L. (2005). Effects of a 12-week physical activity protocol delivered by YMCA after-school counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on fitness and self-efficacy changes in 5-12-year-old boys and girls. Research Quaterly for Exercise & Sport, 76(4), 468-476.

Artero, E.G., Lee, D.C., España-Romero, V., Sui, X., Church, T.S., & Blair, S.N. (2012) Effects of muscular strength on cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis. Journal of Cardiopulmonar Rehabilitation & Prevention, 32(6), 351-358.

Baker, D., Mitchell, J., Boyle, D., Currell, S., & Currell, P. (2007). Resistance training for children and youth: a position stand from the Australian Strength and Conditioning Association (ASCA). www. strengthandconditioning.org 2007 [ACCEDIDO:] 01 Septiembre 2016.

Bangsbo, J., Krustrup, P., Duda, J., Hillman, C., Andersen, L.B., Weiss, M., … Elbe, A. (2016). The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016: children, youth, and physical activity in schools and during leisure time. British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096325.

Barnett, L., Van Beurden, E., Morgan, P., Brooks, L., & Beard, J. (2008). Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(12):2137-2144.

Bebich-Philip, M.D., Lorenz, A., Reid, S.L., Wright, K.E., & Furzer, B.J. (2016). Adaptation of the resistance training skills battery for use in children across the motor proficiency spectrum. Pediatric Exercise Science, 28(3), 473-480.

Beck, B.R., Snow-Harter, C.M. (2003). Bone health across the lifespan-exercising our options. Exercise& Sport Sciences Reviews, 31(3), 117-122.

Behm, D.G., Faigenbuam, A.D., Falk, B., & Klentrou, P. (2008). Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position paper: resistance training in children and adolescents. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 33(3), 547-561.

Behringer, M., vom Heede, A., Matthews, M., & Mester, J. (2011). Effects of strength training on motor performance skills in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Ped Exerc Sci; 23(2), 186-206.

Bergeron, M.F., Mountjoy, M., Armstrong, N., Chia, M., Côté, J., Emery, C.A.,… Engebretsen, L. (2015). International Olympic committee consensus statement on youth athletic development. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(13), 843-851.

Bickley, L.S., Szilagyi, P.G. (2013). Bates. Guía de exploración física e historia clínica. 11aed. Hospitalet de Llobregat. Wolters Kluwer. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (pp. 766).

British Association of Exercise and Sport Sciences. (2004). BASES position statement on guidelines for resistance exercise in young people. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(4), 383-390

Capdevila, A., Bellmunt, H., & Hernado, C. (2015). Estilo de vida y rendimiento académico en adolescentes: comparación entre deportistas y no deportistas. Retos, 27:28-33.

Carson V, Hunter S, Kuzik N, Gray CE, Poitras VJ, Chaput JP,… Tremblay MS, Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: an update, Applied Physiology, Nutrition, & Metabolism. 2016; 41(S3):S240-65.

Cesari, M., Pahor, M., Laurentani, F., Zamboni, V., Bandinelli, S., Bernabei, R., Guralnik, J.M., & Ferrucci, L. (2009). Skeletal muscle and mortality results from the InCHIANTI Study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 64(3): 377-384.

Clark, B.C., & Manini, T.M. (2010). Functional consequences of sarcopenia and dynapenia in the elderly. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 13(3), 271-276

Clark, B.C., & Manini, T.M. (2012). What is dynapenia? Nutrition, 28(5), 495-503.

Clark, E.M., Tobias, J.H., Murray, L., & Boreham, C. (2011). Children with low muscle strength are at an increased risk of fracture with exposure to exercise. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interaction, 11(2), 196-202.

Cohen, D.D., Voss, C., Taylor, M.J.D., Delextrat, A., Ogunleye, A.A., & Sandercock, G.R.H. (2011). Ten-year secular changes in muscular fitness in English children. Acta Paediatrica, 100(10), 175-177.

Colley, R.C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C., Clarke, J., & Tremblay, M.S. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports, 22(1), 15-23.

Corte de Araujo, A.C., Roschel, H., Picanço, A.R., do Prado, D.M.L., Villares, S.M.F., de Sá Pinto, A.L., & Gualano, B. (2012). Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children. PLoS ONE, 7(8), e42747.

Dahab, K.S., & McCambridge, T.M. (2009). Strength training children and adolescents: Raising the bar for Young athletes? Sports Health, 1(3), 223-226.

Dâmaso, A.R., da Silveira Campos, R.M., Caranti, D.A., de Piano, A., Fisberg, M.,… de Mello, M.T. (2014). Aerobic plus resistance training was more effective in improving the visceral adiposity, metabolic profile and inflammatory markers tan aerobic training in obese adolescents. Journal of Sports Science, 32(15), 1435-1445.

Donnelly, J.E., Hillman, Ch. H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., Lambourner, K., & Szabo-Reed, A. (2016). Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: A systematic review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(6), 1223-1224.

Ebbeling, C., Pawlak, D., & Ludwig, D. (2002). Childhood obesity: Public health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet, 360(9331), 473–482.

Evetovich, T.K., & Hinnerichs, K.R. (2014). Consulta y evaluación del estado de salud del cliente. Capítulo 9. En J.W. Coburn, & M.H. Malek (Coord), Manual NSCA Fundamentos del entrenamiento personal. Badalona: Paidotribo (pp. 147-163).

Faigenbaum, A., & Meadors, L. (2016 in press). A Coaches dozen: An update on building healthy, strong and resiliant Young athletes, Strength Cond J.

Faigenbaum, A.D., & MacDonald, J.P. (2017). It’s not just for grown-ups anymore. Acta Pediatrica, doi 10.1111/apa13797.

Faigenbaum, A.D., & Mcfarland, J. (2016). Resistance Training for Kids: Right from the Start. ACSMs Health and Fitness Journal, 20(5), 16-22.

Faigenbaum, A.D., & Myer, G.D. (2010a). Pediatric resistance training: benefits, concerns and program design considerations. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 9(3), 161-168.

Faigenbaum, A.D., & Myer, G.D. (2010b). Resistance training among Young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(1). 56-63.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Farrel, A., Fabiano, M., Radler, T., Naclerio, F., Ratamess, N., Kang, J. &, Myer, G. (2011). Effects of integrative neuromuscular training on fitness performance in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 23(4), 573-584.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Farrell, A.C., Fabiano, M., Radler, T.A., Naclerio, F., Ratames, N.A., Kang, J. & Myer, G.D. (2013a). Effects of detraining on fitness performance in 7-year-old-children. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27:323-330.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Kraemer, W.J., Blimkie, C.J.R., Jeffreys, I., Micheli, L., Nitka, M., & Rowland, T.W. (2009). Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 23(5), S60-S79.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Lloyd, R.S., MacDonald, J., & Myer, G.D. (2015). Citius, Altius Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(1), 3-7.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Lloyd, R.S., Sheehan, D., & Myer, G.D. (2013b). The role of the pediatric exercise specialist in treating exercise deficit disorder in youth. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 35(3), 34-41.

Faigenbaum, A.D., McFarland, J.E., Herman, R.E., Naclerio, F., Ratamess, N.A., Kang, J., & Myer, G.D. (2012). Reliability of the one-repetition-maximum power clean test in adolescent athletes. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(2), 432-437.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Miliken, L.A., Cloutier, G., & Westcott, W.L. (2004). Perceived exertion during resistance exercise by children. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 98(2), 627-637.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Milliken, L., & Westcott, W. (2003). Maximal strength testing in children. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(1), 162–166.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Ratamess, N.A., McFarland, J., Kaczmarek, J., Coraggio, M.J., Kang, J., & Hoffman, J.R. (2008). Effect of rest interval length on bench press performance in boys, teens, and men. Pediatic Exercise Science, 20(4), 457-469.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Westcott, W.L., Micheli, L.F., Outerbridge, A.R., Long, C.J., LaRosa-Loud, R., & Zaichkowsky, L.D. (1996). The effect of strength training and detraining on children. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 10(2), 109-114.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Zaichkowsky, L., Westcott, W., Micheli, L., & Fehlandt, A. (1993). The effects of a twice per week strength training program on children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 5(4), 339–346.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Zaichkowsky, L., Westcott, W., Micheli, L., Outerbridge, A., Long, C., & LaRosa-Loud, R. (1997). Psychological effects of strength training on children. Journal of Sports Behavior, 20(2), 164–175.

Fairchild, T.J., Klakk, H., Heidemann, M.S., Andersen, L.B., & Wedderkopp, N. (2016). Exploring the relationship between adiposity and fitness in young children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(9), 1708-1714.

Falk, B., & Dotan, R. (2006) Child-adult differences in the recovery from high intensity exercise. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 34(3), 107–112.

Falk, B., & Eliakim, A. (2003). Resistance training, skeletal muscle and growth. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, 1(2), 120–127.

Falk, B., & Tenenbaum, G. (1996). The effectiveness of resistance training in children: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 22(3), 176-186.

Fedewa, A., & Ahn, S. (2011). The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children’s achievement and cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis. Research Quaterly for Exercise & Sport, 82(3), 521-535.

Fernández, J.R., Bohan, M., López-Alarcón, M., Dawson, J.A., Guo, F., Redden, D.T., & Allison, D.B. (2016). Changes in pediatric waist circumference percentiles despite reported pediatric weight stabilization in the United States. Pediatric Obesity, doi:10.1111/ijpo.12250.

Fransen, J., Deprez, D., Pion, J., Tallir, I.B., D’Hondt, E., Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, M., & Philippaerts, R.M (2014). Changes in physical fitness and sports participation among children with different levels of motor competence: a 2-year longitudinal study. Pediatric Exercise Science, 26(1), 11-21.

Fraser, B.J., Huynh, Q.L., Schmidt, M.D., Dwyer, T., Venn, A.J., & Magnussen, C.G. (2016). Childhood muscular fitness phenotypes and adult metabolic syndrome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(9), 1715-1722.

Gontved, A., Riesd-Larsen, M., Moller, N.C., Kristensen, P.L., Froberg, K., Brage, S., & Andersen, L.B. (2015). Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study). British Journal of Sport Medicine, 49(2), 90-94.

González-Gross, M., & Meléndez, A. (2013). Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: Impact on health and obesity prevention. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 28(S5), 89-98.

Granacher, U., Lesinski, M., Büsch, D., Muehlbauer, T., Prieske, O., Puta, Ch.,…Behm, D.G. (2016). Effects of resistance training in youth athletes on muscular fitness and athletic performance: a conceptual model for long-term athlete development. Frontiers in Physiology, 7, 164. doi:10.33389/fphys.2016.00164.

Guthold, R., Cowan, M., Autenrietgh, C., Kann, L., & Riley, L. (2010). Physical activity and sedentary behavior among schoolchildren: a 34 country comparison. Journal of Pediatrics, 157(1), 43-49

Hind, K., & Burrows, M. (2007). Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents: A review of controlled trials. Bone, 40(1), 14-27.

Janz, K.F., Dawson, J.D., & Mahoney LT. (2002). Increases in physical fitness during childhood improve cardiovascular health during adolescence: the Muscatine study. International Journal of Sport Medicine, 23(S1), 15-21.

Kwon, S., Janz, K.F., Letuchy, E.M., Burns, T.L., & Levy, S.M. (2015). Developmental trajectories of physical activity, sports and television viewing during childhood to young adulthood: Iowa bone development study. JAMA Pediatric, 169(7), 666-672.

Lesinski, M., Prieske, O., & Granacher, U. (2016). Effect and dose-response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50,(13) 781-795.

Lloyd, R.S., Faigenbaum, A.D., Stone, M.H., Oliver, J.L., Jeffreys, I., Moody, J.A.,… Myer, G.D. (2014). Posicionamiento sobre el entrenamiento de fuerza en jóvenes. Consenso Internacional de 2014. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte, 31(2), 111-124.

Lloyd, R.S., Faigenbaum, A.D., Stone, M.H., Oliver, J.L., Jeffreys, I., Moody, J.A.,… Myer, G.D. (2014). Position statement on youth resistance training: the 2014 International consensus. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(7), 498-505.

Lloyd, R.S., Oliver, J.L., Faigenbaum, A.D., Howard, R., de Ste Croix, M., Williams, C.A.,…Myer, G.D. (2015). Long-term athletic development- part 1: a pathway for all youth. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(5), 1439-1450.

Lobstein, T., Baur, L., Uauy, & R. (2004). Obesity in children and Young people: A crisis in public health. Obesity Review, 5, S4-104. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2004.00133.x.

Lopes, V., Rodrigues, L., Maia, J., & Malina R. (2011). Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(5), 663-669.

Lopes, W.A., Leiter, N., da Silva, L.R., Brunelli, D.T., Gáspari, A.F., Radominski, R.B.,…Cavaglieri, C.R. (2016). Effects of 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls. Journal of Sports Science, 34(20), 1902-1912.

Malina, R. (2006). Weight training in youth-growth, maturation and safety: an evidenced based review. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 16(6), 478-487.

Martínez, J.R., Villarino, A., García, R.M., Calle, M.E., & Marrodán, M.D. (2013). Obesidad infantil en España: hasta qué punto es un problema de salud pública o sobre la fiabilidad de las encuestas. Nutrición Clínica y Dietética Hospitalaria, 33(2):80-8

McCormack, S.E., McCarthy, M.A., Harrington, S.G., Farilla, L., Hrovat, M.I., Systrom, D.M., … Fleischman, A. (2014). Effects of exercise and lifestyle modification on fitness, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation and intramyocellular lipid contet in obese children and adolescents. Pediatric Obesity, 9(4), 281-291.

Mears, R., & Jago, R. (2016). Effectiveness of after-school interventions at increasing moderate-to vigorous physical activity levels in 5-to 18-years old: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094976.

Meylan, C.M., Cronin, J.B., Oliver, J.L., Hopkins, W.G, and Contreras, B. (2014). The effect of maturation on adaptations to strength training and detraining in 11-15-years-old. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science and Sports, 24:e156-e164.

Moliner-Urdiales, D., Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Rey-López, J.P.,… Moreno, L.A. (2010). Secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA and HELENA studies. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 584-588.

Murphy, I.R., Button, D.C., Chaouachi, A., & Behm, D.G. Prepubescent males are less susceptible to neuromuscular fatigue following resistance exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114:825-835.

Myer, G., Quatman, C., Khoury, J., Wall, E.J., & Hewett, T.E. (2009). Youth vs adult “weightlifting” injuries presented to United States emergency rooms: accidental vs non-accidental injury mechanisms. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(7), 2054-2060.

Myer, G.D., Faigenbaum, A.D., Chu, D.A., Falkel, J., Ford, K.R., Best, T.M., & Hewet, T.E. (2011). Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance. The Physician Sportsmedicine, 39(1), 74-84.

Myer, G.D., Faigenbaum, A.D., Ford, K.R., Best, T.M., Bergeron, M.F., & Hewett, T.E. (2011). When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sports-related injuries in youth? Current Sports Medicine Reports, 10(3), 155-166.

Noriega, M.J., Jaén, B., Santamaria, A., Amigo, M.T. Antolín, O., Micó, C... Rivas, P.M. (2015). Hábitos sedentarios en adolescentes escolarizados de Cantabria. Retos, 27:3-7.

Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., & Sjöström M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1–11

Ortega, F.B., Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants. British Medical Journal, 345, e7279.

Pesce, C. (2012). Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34(6), 766-786.

Poitras, V.J., Gray, C.F., Borghese, M.M., Carson, V., Chaput, J.P., Janssen, I… Tremblay, M.S. (2016). Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, & Metabolism, 41(S3), S197-S239.

Robertson, R., Goss, F., Aaron, D., Gairola, A., Lowallis, R., Liu, Y., Randall, C., Tessmer, K., Schnorr, T., Schroeder, A., & White, B. (2008). One repetition maximum prediction models for children using the OMNI RPE scale. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 22(1), 196–201.

Ruiz, J.R., Sui, X., Lobelo, F., Morrow, J.R. Jr., Jackson, A.W., Sjöström, M., & Blair, S.N. (2008). Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. Bristish Medical Journal, 337, a439.

Runhaar, J., Collard, D.C.M., Singh, A.S., Kemper, H.C.G., van Mechelen, W., & Chinapaw, M. (2009). Motor fitness in Dutch youth: Differences over a 26-year period (1980-2006). Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(3), 323-328.

Sánchez-Cruz, J.J., Jiménez-Moleón, J.J., Fernández-Quesada, F., & Sánchez, M.J. (2013). Prevalencia de obesidad infantil y juvenil en España en 2012. Revista Española de Cardiología, 66(5), 371-376.

Schranz, N., Tomkinson, G., Parletta, N., Petkov, J., & Olds, T. (2014). Can resistance training change the strength, body composition and self-concept of overweight and obese adolescent males? A randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(20), 1482-1488.

Seefeldt, V. (1980). Developmental motor patterns: Implications for elementary school physical education. In: C. Nadeau, C. Holliwell, K. Newell, & G. Roberts (Eds.), Psychology of motor behavior and sport. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics (pp.314-323).

Serra, L.L., Ribas, L., Aranceta, J., Pérez, C., Saavedra, P., & Peña, L. (2003). Obesidad infantil y juvenil en España. Resultados del estudio enKid (1998-2000). Medicina Clínica, 121(19), 725-732.

Serra-Majem, L.L., Aranceta, J., Pérez-Rodrigo, C., Ribas-Barba, L., & Delgado-Rubio, A. (2006). Prevalence and determinants of obesity in Spanish children and young people. British Journal of Nutrition, 96(1), S67-S72.

Smith, J.J., Eather, N., Morgan, P.J., Plotnikoff, R.C., Faigenbaum, A.D., & Lubans, D.R. (2014). The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(9), 1209-1223.

Stodden, D., Goodway, J., Langendorfer, S., Roberton, M.A., Rudisill, M.E., Garcia, C., & García, L.E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290-306.

Stoner, L., Rowlands, D., Morrison, A., Credeur, D., Hamlin, M., Gaffney, K,… Matteson, A. (2016). Efficacy of exercise intervention for weight loss in overweight and obese adolescents: Meta-analysis and implications. Sports Medicine, [Epub ahead of print].

Telama, R., Yang, X., Leskinen, E., Kankaanpää, A., Hirvensalo, M., Tammelin, T., Viikari, J.S., & Raitakari, O.T. (2014). Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(5), 955-962.

Ten Hoor, G.A., Plasqui, G., Ruiter, R.A.C., Kremers, S.P.J., Rutten, G.M., Schols, A.M.W.J., & Kok, G. (2016). A new direction in psychology and health: Resistance exercise training for obese children and adolescents. Psychology & Health, 31(1), 1-8.

Timpka, S., Petersson, I.F., Zhou, C., & Englund, M. (2014). Muscle strength in adolescent men and risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality in middle age: a prospective cohort study. BMC Medicine, 12, 62 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-62.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Book physical activity guide for Americans. City: 2008. Physical activity guidelines for Americans. www.health.goc/paguidelines. [ACCEDIDO:] 01 Septiembre 2016.

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Youth risk behavior surveillance United States 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 61, 35-36.

Valero, F.J.R., Gualteros, J.A., Torres, J.A., Espinosa, L.M.U., & Ramírez-Vélez, R. (2015). Asociación entre el desempeño muscular y el bienestar físico en niños y adolescentes de Bogotá, Colombia. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 32(4), 1559-1566.

VandenBerg, P., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Carfri, G., & Wall, M. (2007). Steroid use among adolescents: longitudinal findings from Project EAT. Pediatrics, 119(3), 476-486.

Warburton, D.E., Nicol, C.W., & Bredin, S.S. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(6), 801–809.

Watts, K., Jones, T.W., Davis, E.A., & Green, D. (2005). Exercise training in obese children and adolescents. Sports Medicine, 35(5), 375-392.

Winsley, R., & Matos, N. (2011). Overtraining and elite Young athletes. Medicine Sport Science, 56, 97-105.

Woo, J., Shin, K.O., Yoo, J.H., Park, S., & Kang, S. (2012). The effects of detraining on blood adipokines and antioxidant enzyme in Korean overweight children. European Journal of Pediatrics, 171:235-243.

World Health Organization. Interim report of the Commission on ending childhood obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.

Zaqout, M., Vyncke, K., Moreno, L.A., De Miguel-Etavo, P., Lauria, F., Molner, D., … Michels, N. (2016). Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children. International Journal of Public Health, 61(5), 573-582.

Zaricznyj, B., Shattuck, L., Mast, T., Robertson, R., & D’Elia G. (1980). Sports-related injuries in school-aged children. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 8(5), 318-324.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.