¿Puede el entrenamiento de fuerza prevenir y controlar la dinapenia pediátrica? (Can resistance training prevent and control pediatric dynapenia?)

Iván Chulvi Medrano, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo

Resumen


La dinapenia pediátrica es una condición seria que ha visto incrementada su prevalencia entre los niños de hoy en día. Este fenómeno está caracterizado por bajos niveles de fuerza y potencia que no son consecuencia de una enfermedad y que generan limitaciones funcionales en el rendimiento de las habilidades motrices, así como alteraciones cardiometabólicas. Para evitar esta condición e incrementar la salud y el bienestar de los niños y adolescentes es necesario incluir, dentro de la práctica regular de actividad física, un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza. Se ha comprobado que el entrenamiento de fuerza tiene un papel fundamental a la hora de prevenir y controlar la dinapenia pediátrica. No obstante, requiere de una combinación específica entre investigadores, médicos y entrenadores de forma que permita diseñar e implementar de forma segura programas de entrenamiento de fuerza progresivos y adecuados a las necesidades y habilidades de los niños. Esta revisión recoge las principales aportaciones respecto al entrenamiento de fuerza pediátrico y proporciona datos basados en la evidencia para prevenir y controlar la dinapenia pediátrica en los niños.  La participación regular en programas de entrenamiento de fuerza contribuirá a prevenir la dinapenia pediátrica en las primeras etapas de la vida. Por tanto, los niños tendrán más posibilidad de ganar confianza y de adquirir las competencias necesarias para aumentar sus posibilidades físicas y de esta forma podrán cumplir en mayor y mejor medida la cantidad de ejercicio diario recomendado. La intervención se hace especialmente necesaria para mejorar los niveles de fuerza y potencia en los niños ya que, de no ser así, se dificultará en gran medida la posibilidad de prevenir una cascada de consecuencias adversas para la salud en etapas posteriores.


Abstract. Pediatric dynapenia is a serious condition with a growing prevalence within youth nowadays. This phenomenon is characterized by low levels of strength and power not provoked by any disease, which produce functional limitations in motor skill performance and consequent cardio-metabolic abnormalities. In order to improve this condition and enhance the health and well-being of children and adolescents, regular participation in physical activities including resistance training is needed. The unique role of resistance training in preventing and managing pediatric dynapenia implies a joint effort from researchers, clinicians and practitioners in order to design, implement and safely progress developmentally appropriate resistance exercise programs consistent with each child’s needs and abilities. This review synthesizes the latest information on youth resistance training and provides evidence-based rationale for preventing and managing pediatric dynapenia in youth. Regular participation in resistance exercise programs in early ages prevent pediatric dynapenia. Consequently, youth will be more likely to gain confidence and competence on their physical abilities and accumulate the recommended amount of daily exercise. Interventions in schools and communities are needed to increase muscular strength and power in youth, with the aim to prevent inevitable cascade of adverse health consequences later in individuals’ life.


Palabras clave


Pre-adolescents, muscular strength, training, childhood, health)

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