Investigación de la relación entre la resiliencia psicológica, la reactividad emocional, la inadaptación psicológica y el control de la ira de los atletas (Investigation of The Relationship Between Athletes’ Psychological Resilience, Emotional Reactivity, Psychological Maladjustment and Trait Anger Control)


  • Murat Ozan Erzurum Üniversity
  • Ismail Secer


Palabras clave:

deportista, resiliencia psicológica, reactividad emocional, inadaptación psicológica, rasgo de control de la ira.


El propósito de la investigación es examinar la relación entre la resiliencia psicológica, la reactividad emocional, la inadaptación psicológica y los niveles de ira del rasgo de los atletas y el papel mediador de la resiliencia psicológica en esta relación. Los datos se obtuvieron de un total de 972 deportistas, 298 mujeres y 674 hombres, de diferentes ramas deportivas (boxeo, lucha libre, taekwondo, atletismo, fútbol,   voleibol, balonmano, baloncesto). En el proceso de recogida de datos se utilizó la escala de reactividad emocional adaptada a la cultura turca, la escala de depresión, ansiedad, estrés, la escala de estilo de ira y expresión y la escala corta de resiliencia psicológica. En el análisis de los datos se utilizó el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para determinar los efectos predictivos directos e indirectos entre variables. De acuerdo con los hallazgos, aunque la reactividad emocional en los atletas ejerce presión sobre la inadaptación psicológica (depresión, ansiedad y estrés), la resiliencia psicológica tiene una función protectora. Se puede decir que los atletas con alta resiliencia psicológica pueden estar en una posición más positiva en términos de mostrar un rasgo de ira y desajuste psicológico, mientras que los atletas con baja resiliencia psicológica pueden estar en una posición desventajosa. Los resultados del estudio revelaron que la reactividad emocional tiene un predictor positivo de depresión, ansiedad y rasgo de ira. Por otro lado, se evaluó que la resiliencia psicológica tiene una fuerte función protectora sobre la reactividad emocional, la inadaptación psicológica y el rasgo de ira entre los atletas, y este hallazgo se discutió en el contexto de la literatura.

Abstract. The purpose of the research is to examine the relationship between athletes’ psychological resilience, emotional reactivity, psychological maladjustment and trait anger levels and the mediating role of psychological resilience in this relationship. The data were obtained from a total of 972 athletes, 298 women and 674 men, in different sports branches (boxing, wrestling, taekwondo, athletics, soccer, volleyball, handball, basketball). In the data collection process, the emotional reactivity scale adapted to Turkish culture, the depression, anxiety, stress scale, the anger and expression style scale and the short psychological resilience scale were used. In the analysis of the data, the structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect predictive effects between variables. In line with the findings, although emotional reactivity in athletes exerts pressure on psychological maladjustment (depression, anxiety, and stress), psychological resilience has a protective function. It can be said that athletes with high psychological resilience may be in a more positive position in terms of showing trait anger and psychological maladjustment, whereas athletes with low psychological resilience may be in a disadvantageous position. The results of the study revealed that emotional reactivity has a positive predictor of depression, anxiety, and trait anger. On the other hand, psychological resilience was evaluated to have a strong protective function on emotional reactivity, psychological maladjustment and trait anger among athletes, and this finding was discussed in the context of the literature.


Asztalos M, Wijndaele K, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Philippaerts R, Matton L, Duvigneaud N, Thomis M, Lefevre J, Cardon G. (2012). Sport participation and stress among women and men. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(4):466-483.

Bali A. (2015). Psychological factors affecting sports performance. International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health, 1(6):92-95.

Bertollo M, Saltarelli B, Robazza C. (2009). Mental preparation strategies of elite modern pentathletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(2):244-254.

Bull SJ, Shambrook CJ, James W, Brooks JE. (2005). Towards an understanding of mental toughness in elite English cricketers. Journal of applied sport psychology, 17(3):209-227.

Butt J, Weinberg R, Culp B. (2010). Exploring mental toughness in NCAA athletes. Journal of intercollegiate sport, 3(2):316-332.

Cengiz S. (2017) Examining the relationship between emotional reactivity, cognitive distortions and depression in adolescents. Atatürk University Institute of Educational Sciences, Erzurum

Chekroud SR, Gueorguieva R, Zheutlin AB, Paulus M, Krumholz HM, Krystal JH, Chekroud AM. (2018). Association between physical exercise and mental health in 1· 2 million individuals in the USA between 2011 and 2015: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(9):739-746.

Clough P, Earle K. (2002). When the going gets tough: A study of the impact of mental toughness on perceived demands. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(1):61-61.

Codonhato R, Vissoci JRN, Nascimento Junior JRAD, Mizoguchi MV, Fiorese L. (2018). Impact of resilience on stress and recovery in athletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 24(5):352-356.

Connaughton D, Wadey R, Hanton S, Jones G. (2008). The development and maintenance of mental toughness: Perceptions of elite performers. Journal of sports sciences, 26(1):83-95.

Crust L, Clough PJ. (2005). Relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance. Perceptual and motor skills, 100(1):192-194.

Devonport TJ, Lane AM, Hanin YL. (2005). Emotional states of athletes prior to performance-induced injury. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 4(4):382.

Di Fronso, S., Costa, S., Montesano, C., Di Gruttola, F., Ciofi, E. G., Morgilli, L., ... & Bertollo, M. (2020). The effects of COVID-19 pandemic on perceived stress and psychobiosocial states in Italian athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-13.

Dogan T. (2015). Turkish adaptation of the short psychological resilience scale: validity and reliability study. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 3(1):93-102.

Drew B, Matthews J. (2019) The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in student-athletes and the relationship with resilience and help-seeking behavior. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 13(3):421-439.

Elemiri A, Ahmet A. (2014). Mental toughness and its relationship to the achievement level of the weightlifters in Egypt. Turkish Journal of Sports and Exercise, 16(2):63-69.

Eliasz A. (1981). Temperament a system regulacji stymulacji [Temperament and the system of stimulation control]. Warsaw, Poland: PWN,

Fletcher D, Sarkar M. (2012). A grounded theory of psychological resilience in Olympic champions. Psychology of sport and exercise, 13(5):669-678.

Fletcher D, Sarkar M. (2016). Mental fortitude training: An evidence-based approach to developing psychological resilience for sustained success. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 7(3):135-157.

Fourie S, Potgieter JR. (2001) The nature of mental toughness in sport. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 23(2):63-72.

Galli N, Gonzalez SP. (2015). Psychological resilience in sport: A review of the literature and implications for research and practice. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(3):243-257.

Galli N, Vealey RS. (2008). «Bouncing back» from adversity: Athletes’ experiences of resilience. The sport psychologist, 22(3):316-335.

Gracz J, Sankowski T. (2007) Psychology of sports activity. Poznań: AWF Poznań[in Polish],

Greco G, Fischetti F, Cataldi S, Latino F. (2019). Effects of Shotokan Karate on resilience to bullying in adolescents. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(4):896-905.

Gucciardi DF, Crane M, Ntoumanis N, Parker SK, Thøgersen Ntoumani C, Ducker KJ, Peeling P, Chapman MT, Quested E, Temby P. (2018). The emergence of team resilience: A multilevel conceptual model of facilitating factors. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(4):729-768.

Han1moğlu, E., & Akbaş, T. (2018). Üniversite öğrencilerinde aile fonksiyonlar1, benliğin ayr1mlaşmas1, alg1lanan stres, kayg1 ve depresyon aras1ndaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 27(2), 55-69.

Hanson T, Ravizza K. (1995). Heads-up baseball: Playing the game one pitch at a time. In.: Indianapolis, IN: Masters Press

Hu T, Zhang D, Wang J. (2015) A meta-analysis of the trait resilience and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 76:18-27.

Hussey JE, Donohue B, Barchard KA, Allen DN. (2019). Family contributions to sport performance and their utility in predicting appropriate referrals to mental health optimization programmes. European journal of sport science, 19(7):972-982.

Johnson J. (2015). Participation in sports and the development of resilience in adolescents. Master’ s Thesis Brigham Young University.

Jones G. (2002). What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performers. Journal of applied sport psychology, 14(3):205-218.

Karagün E, Çağlayan Ç. (2014). Evaluation of athletes’ exposure to violence and their anger levels. Kocaeli University Journal of Social Sciences, (28):113-127.

Kassinove H, Sukhodolsky DG, Tsytsarev SV, Solovyova S. (1997) Self-reported anger episodes in Russia and America. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(2):301-324.

Kilic Ö, Aoki H, Haagensen R, Jensen C, Johnson U, Kerkhoffs GM, Gouttebarge V. (2017). Symptoms of common mental disorders and related stressors in Danish professional football and handball. European journal of sport science, 17(10):1328-1334.

Kolayis H, Sari I. (2011). Anxiety, self-esteem and competition ranking of judokas. Archives of Budo, 7(1):11-15.

Lau WC, Lau EY. (2009). The role of physical activity in the treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression in children: An overview. Handbook of sports psychology, 1(1):403-414.

Liew, G. C., Kuan, G., Chin, N. S., & Hashim, H. A. (2019). Mental toughness in sport. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 49(4), 381-394.

Loehr JE. (1985) Athletic excellence: Mental toughness training for sports: Forum publishing company

Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. (1995) The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour research and therapy, 33(3):335-343.

Lupis, S. B., Lerman, M., & Wolf, J. M. (2014). Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 49, 84–95.

Luther S, Cicchetti D, Becker B. (2000). The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work. Child Development, Vol. 71, No. 3 pp 543-562.

Machida M, Irwin B, Feltz D. (2013). Resilience in competitive athletes with spinal cord injury: The role of sport participation. Qualitative health research, 23(8):1054-1065.

Masten, A. S. (1994). Resilience in individual development: Successful adaptation despite risk and adversity: Challenges and prospects. In Educational resilience in inner city America: Challenges and prospects (pp. 3-25). Lawrence Erlbaum.

McGarry S, Girdler S, McDonald A, Valentine J, Lee SL, Blair E, Wood F, Elliott C. (2013). Paediatric health care professionals: Relationships between psychological distress, resilience and coping skills. Journal of paediatrics and child health, 49(9):725-732.

Morgan PB, Fletcher D, Sarkar M. (2013). Defining and characterizing team resilience in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(4):549-559.

Nicholls AR, Polman RC, Levy AR, Backhouse SH. (2008). Mental toughness, optimism, pessimism, and coping among athletes. Personality and individual differences, 44(5):1182-1192.

Nock MK, Wedig MM, Holmberg EB, Hooley JM. (2008). The emotion reactivity scale: development, evaluation, and relation to self-injurious thoughts and behaviors. Behavior therapy, 39(2):107-116.

Novaco RW, Blanchard R, Blanchard C. (1986). Anger as a clinical and social problem. Advances in the study of aggression. In.: New York: Academic Press

Orlick T. (1990). In Pursuit of Exellence, How to win in Sport and Life through Mental Training. Champaign, Illinois,.

Ozer AK. (1994). Preliminary study of trait anger (L-anger) and anger expression style (anger-style) scales. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 9(31):26-35.

Palazzolo J. (2020). Anxiety and performance. L’encephale, 46(2):158-161.

Parneix, M., Péricaud, M., & Clément, J. P. (2014). Anger easy associated with major depressive episodes: Its relationship with mood disorders and temperament. Türk Psikiyatri Derg 2014; 25 (2): 106, 113.

Rice SM, Gwyther K, Santesteban-Echarri O, Baron D, Gorczynski P, Gouttebarge V, Reardon CL, Hitchcock ME, Hainline B, Purcell R. (2019). Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine, 53(11):722-730.

Rosenbaum S, Tiedemann A, Sherrington C, van der Ploeg HP. (2014). Assessing physical activity in people with posttraumatic stress disorder: feasibility and concurrent validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–short form and actigraph accelerometers. BMC research notes, 7(1):1-7.

Sarkar M, Fletcher D. (2013). How should we measure psychological resilience in sport performers? Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 17(4):264-280.

Sarkar M, Fletcher D. (2014). Psychological resilience in sport performers: a review of stressors and protective factors. Journal of sports sciences, 32(15):1419-1434.

Schaal K, Tafflet M, Nassif H, Thibault V, Pichard C, Alcotte M, Guillet T, El Helou N, Berthelot G, Simon S. (2011). Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns. PloS one, 6(5):e19007.

Schumacker RE, Lomax RG. (2004) A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling: psychology press.

Secer İ, Halmatov S, Gençdoğan B. (2013). Adaptation of the emotional reactivity scale to Turkish: reliability and validity study. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 3(1):77-89.

Secer İ. (2015). Examining the relationship between school burnout and psychological maladjustment in university students. Atatürk University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 19(1):81-99.

Smith BW, Dalen J, Wiggins K, Tooley E, Christopher P, Bernard J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International journal of behavioral medicine, 15(3):194-200.

Spielberger C, Jacobs G, Russell S, Crane R. (1983). Assessment of anger: The state-trait anger scale. Advances in personality assessment, 2:161-189.

Sterkowicz S, Blecharz J, Sterkowicz-Przybycien K. (2012). Stress in sport situations experienced by people who practice karate. Archives of Budo, 8(2):65-77.

Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS, Ullman JB. (2007). Using multivariate statistics, vol. 5: Pearson Boston, MA

Trevino MA, Coburn JW, Brown LE, Judelson DA, Malek MH. (2015). Acute effects of caffeine on strength and muscle activation of the elbow flexors. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(2):513-520.

Vancampfort D, Stubbs B, Richards J, Ward PB, Firth J, Schuch FB, Rosenbaum S. (2017). Physical fitness in people with posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. Disability and rehabilitation, 39(24):2461-2467.

Wagstaff C, Hings R, Larner R, Fletcher D. (2018). Psychological resilience’s moderation of the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and burnout in athletes and coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 32(3):178-188.

Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202-207.

Wilson, M. R. (2012). Anxiety: Attention, the brain, the body and performance. The Oxford handbook of sport and performance psychology, 173-190.

Wu, D., Luo, Y., Ma, S., Zhang, W., & Huang, C. J. (2021). Organizational stressors predict competitive trait anxiety and burnout in young athletes: Testing psychological resilience as a moderator. Current Psychology, 1-9.

Yilmaz O, Boz H, Arslan A. (2017). The validity and reliability of depression stress and anxiety scale (DASS 21) Turkish short form. Research of Financial Economic and Social Studies, 2(2):78-91.

Zuleta, K. M. P., Walle, J. L., Noguera, B. C. M., Torres, A. P. V., Rodríguez, J. L. T., & Dávila, C. A. (2022). Efecto del ejercicio físico sobre los síntomas depresivos en pacientes hospitalizados con depresión. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, (43), 53-61.




Cómo citar

Ozan, M., & Secer, I. (2022). Investigación de la relación entre la resiliencia psicológica, la reactividad emocional, la inadaptación psicológica y el control de la ira de los atletas (Investigation of The Relationship Between Athletes’ Psychological Resilience, Emotional Reactivity, Psychological Maladjustment and Trait Anger Control). Retos, 46, 143–151.



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas