Análisis técnico de los tiros libres y su relación con el éxito en jugadores de baloncesto menores de 12 años (Free throw technical analysis and its relationship with success in Under-12 basketball players)

  • Álvaro Díaz-Aroca Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia
  • José Luis Arias-Estero
Palabras clave: baloncesto, baloncesto juvenil, pedagogía del deporte, patrón temporal, (basketball, youth basketball, sport pedagogy, T-pattern)


El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la técnica de tiro libre y la técnica de tiro libre con éxito, tanto antes de la salida del balón como en el momento de salida del balón en baloncesto U-12, a través de un test de tiro. Los participantes fueron 102 jugadores de ocho equipos masculinos de baloncesto U-12 federados. Se utilizó un diseño observacional puntual/ideográfico/multidimensional para analizar las grabaciones de 612 tiros libres. La prueba consistía en realizar uno, dos o tres tiros libres. Un participante realizaba los tiros libres y el otro le pasaba el balón. Los participantes intercambiaban los roles hasta que los dos realizaron todas las opciones de tiro libre. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes no ejecutaron el tiro libre utilizando la técnica propuesta por la literatura. Esta diferencia se debió a que predominaron los tiros libres con salto, con estilo bajo, pies a la misma distancia y desplazamiento moderado del centro de masas hacia adelante. La técnica de los tiros libres en general fue más regular que la de los tiros libres con éxito. En conclusión, los jugadores utilizaron una técnica alejada de las recomendaciones teóricas, poco regular, y sin cumplir los criterios que posibilitan éxito en el tiro libre. Esto ocurrió como consecuencia de intentar obtener éxito en una situación de tiro libre a 4 m de la canasta, situada a 2.60 m de altura, y con un balón de 485 g. Teniendo en cuenta las características de los participantes del presente trabajo en cuanto a edad, fuerza, madurez, altura, peso e índice de masa corporal, los entrenadores y los responsables de las competiciones deberían valorar qué debe mejorarse en el baloncesto U-12 para que los jugadores puedan aumentar el éxito en los tiros libres.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the free throw technique and successful free throw technique both prior to ball release and at ball release moments in under-12 basketball, using a court-applied test. The participants were 102 players from eight male under-12 officially federated basketball teams. We used a point/ideographic/multidimensional observational design to analyse the recordings of 612 free throws. The test consisted of performing one, two or three free throws. One participant performed the free throws and the other passed the ball to him. The roles were exchanged until the two participants performed all the free throw options. As a result, the participants did not execute the free throw using the technique proposed by the literature. This difference was because jumping free throws shoots, with low style, feet at the same distance, and moderate forward displacement of the centre of mass predominated. The free throw technique was in general more regular than that of the successful free throws. Players used an unregulated technique, without meeting the criteria that activate success in the free throw. This technique resulted attempting successful free throws at 4 m from the basket, which is 2.60 m high, with a 485-g ball. Taking into account the characteristics of the participants of the present work in terms of age, strength, maturity, height, weight, and body mass index, coaches and the competition managers should assess what should be improved in under-12 basketball to allow players to increase free throw success. 

Biografía del autor/a

Álvaro Díaz-Aroca, Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia

Prof. Facultad de Deporte


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Cómo citar
Díaz-Aroca, Álvaro, & Arias-Estero, J. (2022). Análisis técnico de los tiros libres y su relación con el éxito en jugadores de baloncesto menores de 12 años (Free throw technical analysis and its relationship with success in Under-12 basketball players). Retos, 43, 836-844.
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas