Estructura de los cuerpos técnicos, métodos de planificación, prácticas metodológicas y gestión de la carga en fútbol (Technical staff structure, planning methods, methodological practices and load management in soccer)

  • Alejandro Romero-Caballero Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
  • Daniel Varela-Olalla Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
  • Ignacio Collado-Lázaro Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
  • Darío Álvarez-Salvador Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Palabras clave: Fútbol, Gestión de la carga, Periodización, Metodología, (Football, Workload, Periodization, Methodology)

Resumen

 

El rendimiento en fútbol depende de varios factores interrelacionados entre los que encontramos las áreas técnica, táctica, física y psicológica. Durante las últimas décadas ha existido un aumento en la congestión de partidos. La mayor frecuencia de partidos y el riesgo de lesión asociado han puesto de manifiesto la importancia de la condición física, aumentando la necesidad de implementar nuevas metodologías de entrenamiento con especial énfasis en el manejo de la carga y la fatiga, así como entrenamientos complementarios. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue brindar información sobre la estructura y características de los cuerpos técnicos y las prácticas metodológicas de entrenamiento, así como los métodos de control de la carga de trabajo y la fatiga utilizados en el fútbol, ​​examinando posibles diferencias por género, categoría y nivel competitivo. 190 equipos de fútbol de 20 países diferentes participaron en el estudio, respondiendo a una encuesta. Los resultados revelan que existen diferencias en la estructura de los cuerpos técnicos, los modelos de planificación, la metodología y el control de la carga de entrenamientos y partidos según la categoría y el nivel competitivo. El género solo aparece como variable discriminante en relación con los contenidos complementarios de entrenamiento más utilizados. El microciclo semanal es el modelo de planificación preferido (80.89%), independientemente del nivel competitivo. Sin embargo, en categorías inferiores también se utiliza la periodización a medio y largo plazo (23.80%). El volumen semanal de entrenamiento complementario aumenta a medida que lo hace la categoría (p<.001) y el nivel competitivo (p<.001). El entrenamiento de fuerza es el contenido de entrenamiento complementario más utilizado (84.89%). Sin embargo, su importancia se reduce en categorías inferiores (38.5%). El control de la carga y la fatiga solo se extiende entre equipos de categoría y nivel competitivo superior (p<.001).

Abstract. Soccer performance depends on several interrelated factors regarding technical, tactical, physical and psychological areas. Over the last decades there was an increase in match congestion. The increased match frequency and the associated injury risk have highlighted the importance of physical condition, increasing the need to implement new training methodologies with a special focus on load and fatigue management, as well as non-specific complementary training. The main objective of this study was to provide information on the structure and characteristics of the technical staffs, the methodological training practices, as well as the workload and fatigue control methods used in soccer, examining possible differences based on gender, category and competitive level. 190 soccer teams from 20 different countries participated in the study, by answering a survey. The results reveal that there are differences in the structure of the technical staff, the planning models, the methodology and the workload control depending on the category and the competitive level. Gender only appears as a discriminating variable, in relation to the most used complementary training contents. The weekly microcycle is the preferred planning model (80.89%), regardless the competitive level. However, in lower categories, medium and long term periodization are also used (23.80%). The weekly volume of complementary training increases as category (p=0.000) and competitive level (p=0.000) does. Strength training is the most used non-specific content (84.89%). However, its importance is reduced in lower categories (38.5%). Load and fatigue control are only extended among teams of superior category (p=0.000) and competitive level (p=0.000). 

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Romero-Caballero, A., Varela-Olalla, D., Collado-Lázaro, I., & Álvarez-Salvador, D. (2022). Estructura de los cuerpos técnicos, métodos de planificación, prácticas metodológicas y gestión de la carga en fútbol (Technical staff structure, planning methods, methodological practices and load management in soccer). Retos, 43, 788-796. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.89044
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas

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