Las clases de natación en el contexto escolar durante un período de doce semanas mejoran las habilidades acuáticas y la coordinación motora en niños brasileños (Learn-to-swim program in a school context for a twelve-week period enhance aquatic skills and

  • Orilda M. Moura Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Daniel A. Marinho Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal; Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Jorge E. Morais Department of Sports Sciences, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Bragança, Portugal; Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Mafalda P. Pinto Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Luís B. Faíl Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Henrique P. Neiva Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal; Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, Covilhã, Portugal http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9283-312X
Palabras clave: desarrollo motor, habilidades acuáticas, natación, niño, (motor development, aquatic skills, swimming, child)

Resumen

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar los efectos de las clases de natación durante un período de 12 semanas en las habilidades acuáticas y la coordinación motora en niños brasileños. Cincuenta niños entre los 6 y los 10 años de edad (media ± DE: 8.34 ± 1.10 años) participaron una vez por semana en una clase de natación ofrecida por el plan de estudios escolar. Cada niño fue evaluado en cuanto a sus habilidades acuáticas (lista de verificación de 17 habilidades) y coordinación motora (Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder test - KTK) antes y después del programa de natación. Los resultados del estudio mostraron mejoras significativas en la suma de las puntuaciones obtenidas en la evaluación de las habilidades de natación (31.40 ± 12.89 frente a 46.90 ± 10.73 puntos, p < .01, d = 3.38). Se observaran efectos importantes en la orientación y el ajuste del agua en la posición vertical, en el control de la respiración, en la flotabilidad horizontal, en la posición del cuerpo en la posición ventral, en el deslizamiento dorsal y la rotación longitudinal, en los saltos mortales hacia adelante y hacia atrás, en los empujes con las piernas con control de la respiración, pies primero / cabeza primero entradas, en la autonomía en piscina profunda y flotabilidad vertical y inmersión en aguas profundas. La suma de las puntuaciones en la evaluación de la coordinación motora aumentó de 140.64 ± 41.94 a 175.20 ± 41.39 puntos (p < .01, d = 1.56). Estos resultados mostraron que 12 semanas de prácticas de natación, incluso condicionadas por el contexto de la escuela estatal (es decir, una vez por semana), permitieron a los niños brasileños de 6 a 10 años aumentar de forma significativa la preparación acuática y la coordinación motora.

Abstract. This study aimed to verify the effects of 12 weeks of swimming lessons implemented in age school Brazilian children’s aquatic skills and motor coordination. Fifty children aged 6 to 10 years old (mean ± SD: 8.34 ± 1.10 years), participated in one swimming lesson per week provided by the school curriculum. Each child was evaluated for their aquatic skills (17 skills checklist) and motor coordination (Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder test–KTK) before and after the swimming program. This study showed significant improvements in the sum of scores obtained in swimming skills evaluation (31.40 ± 12.89 vs. 46.90 ± 10.73 points, p < .01, d = 3.38). Large effects were found in water orientation and adjustment at the vertical position, breath control, horizontal buoyancy, body position at ventral, dorsal gliding and at longitudinal rotation, front and back somersaults, leg kicking with breath control, feet-first/head-first entries, autonomy in a deep pool and vertical buoyancy and immersion at deep water. The sum of scores in motor coordination assessment increased from 140.64 ± 41.94 to 175.20 ± 41.39 points (p < .01, d = 1.56). These results showed that 12 weeks of swimming practices, even conditioned by state school context (i.e., once a week), allowed Brazilian children aged 6-10 years old to increase aquatic skills and motor coordination. 

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Moura, O., Marinho, D., Morais, J., Pinto, M., Faíl, L., & Neiva, H. (2022). Las clases de natación en el contexto escolar durante un período de doce semanas mejoran las habilidades acuáticas y la coordinación motora en niños brasileños (Learn-to-swim program in a school context for a twelve-week period enhance aquatic skills and. Retos, 43, 316-324. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.88903
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas