Índice de Masa Corporal, Velocidad de Marcha y Fuerza de Prensión Manual en Mujeres Mayores Chilenas (Body Mass Index, Gait Speed and Manual Pressure Force in Chilean Older Women)

  • Felipe Andrés Hermosilla Palma Universidad Autónoma de Chile
  • Luis Felipe Castelli de Campos
  • Marco Cossio Bolaños
  • Cristian Luarte Rocha
  • Grimanés Medina Monsalve
  • Cenaida Garrido Bastías
  • Danny de la Hoz Riquelme
  • Mauricio García Ortega
Palabras clave: adulto mayor, velocidad de marcha, fuerza muscular, índice de masa corporal, (Elderly, gait speed, muscular strength, body mass index)

Resumen

 

Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio es de comparar la velocidad de marcha (VM), fuerza de tren superior (PM) y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) en mujeres mayores que participan de forma regular en talleres de actividad física, según rango de edad, así como, verificar la asociación entre Edad, IMC y PM con VM en 10 metros. Metodología: Participaron voluntariamente 85 mujeres (70,1±6,9años) vinculadas al programa de talleres de adulto mayor del IND de la región de Ñuble. Las participantes fueron categorizadas según rango de edad (grupo total [GT], 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79 y 80-84 años). Se evaluó el peso corporal y la estatura para el cálculo de IMC, la fuerza de tren superior con la prueba de prensión manual (PM) en la mano dominante y la VM en 10 metros. Resultados: Los principales resultados apuntan que la VM fue significativamente inferior para el grupo de 80-84 años comparados a los grupos GT (p<0.03), 60-64 (p<0.00) y de 65-69 años (p<0.03). El grupo 70-74 años fueron significativamente más lento que el de 60-64 años (p<0.02). La relación entre VM y PM para el grupo analizado fue positiva, baja y no significativa (r=0,20, p<0.06). Por fin, la Edad y el IMC resultaron en un modelo estadísticamente significativo [F(2,82)=13,784; p<0.001; R2=0.252, EE = 0,204m/s] para predicción de la VM. Conclusión: En general, concluimos que la VM se reduce en grupos con edades mayores y que la PM no presenta la misma tendencia, además que la Edad y el IMC son predictores de VM en mujeres mayores. 

Abstract. The aim of this study is to compare the gait speed (VM), manual pressure force (PM) and the Body Mass Index (IMC) in older women who participate regularly in physical activity programs, according to age, as well as, to verify the association between Age, IMC and PM with MV in 10 meters. 85 older women (70.1 ± 6.9 years) from the physical activity program of the National Sports Institute of the Ñuble / Chile region voluntarily participated in the study. The participants were categorized according to age range (total group [GT], 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80-84 years). Body weight and height were evaluated for the calculation of IMC, upper body strength with the manual grip test (PM) in the dominant hand and the MV in 10 meters. Results: The main results indicate that MV was significantly lower for the 80-84 year-old group compared to the GT (p <0.03), 60-64 (p <0.00) and 65-69 years (p < 0.03). The 70-74 year group were significantly slower than the 60-64 year group (p <.024). The relationship between MV and PM for the analyzed group was positive, low and not significant (r = 0.20, p <0.06). Finally, Age and BMI resulted in a statistically significant model [F (2,82) = 13,784; p <0.001; R2 = 0.252, SE = 0.204m / s] for prediction of MV. Conclusion: In general, we conclude that MV decreased in older age groups and that PM does not present the same trend and that Age and IMC are predictors of MV in older women.

Citas

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Hermosilla Palma, F., Castelli de Campos, L. F., Cossio Bolaños, M., Luarte Rocha, C., Medina Monsalve, G., Garrido Bastías, C., de la Hoz Riquelme, D., & García Ortega, M. (2022). Índice de Masa Corporal, Velocidad de Marcha y Fuerza de Prensión Manual en Mujeres Mayores Chilenas (Body Mass Index, Gait Speed and Manual Pressure Force in Chilean Older Women). Retos, 43, 135-142. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.88743
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Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas