Miedo a caer y capacidad funcional de mayores a vivir en la comunidad (Fear of falling and physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults)

Autores/as

  • Vania Azevedo Ferreira Brandao de Loureiro Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Escola Superior de Educação, Departamento de Artes, Humanidades e Desporto, Beja, Portugal http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2458-3004
  • Margarida Isabel Boteta Gomes
  • Ana Ruivo Alves

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.88588

Palabras clave:

Fuerza, Envejecimiento saludable, Caídas, Ejercício, Promoción de la salud (), (Strength, Healthy active, Falls, Exercise, Health Promotion)

Resumen

El miedo a caer se señala como una consecuencia psicológica resultante de la pérdida de funcionalidad y equilibrio inherente al envejecimiento. Mantener buenos niveles de aptitud física puede ser la clave para preservar la calidad de vida y la independencia de los mayores. Este estudio tiene como objetivo verificar la relación del miedo a caer con la aptitud física de mayores inscriptos en programas de ejercicio físico. La muestra incluyó 308 mayores, con edad ³ 65 años (86.8% mujeres; edad 74.78 ± 5.72 años, altura 1.56 ± 0.08 m, peso 67.13 ± 12.14 kg), del Baixo Alentejo, Portugal. Se evaluarán características sociodemográficas, historial de caídas, miedo a caer (FES-I Portugal), nivel de actividad física (IPAQ-E - versión corta) y indicadores de capacidad física (Rikli & Jones, 2013). Se observaron relaciones significativas entre el miedo a caer y las variables de aptitud física. Bajo medo a caer parece estar relacionado con una mejor fuerza de los miembros inferiores (p < .001), agilidad y equilibrio dinámico (p < .001) y aptitud cardiorrespiratoria (p < .001). Los resultados revelan que un bajo medo a caer está relacionado con una mejor capacidad funcional. Con el fin de contribuir al mantenimiento y desarrollo de la aptitud física y evitar una disminución de la calidad de vida, reforzamos la importancia de los programas de ejercicio físico que incluyen fuerza, agilidad, equilibrio y aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, integrados en intervenciones multifactoriales. Estas estrategias pueden, a través de la promoción y el mantenimiento de las capacidades funcionales, crear una mayor percepción de competencia y, en consecuencia, reducir el miedo a caer.

Abstact. The fear of falling is pointed out as a psychological consequence resulting from the loss of functionality and balance inherent to aging. Maintaining good levels of physical fitness may be the key to preserve the quality of life and independence of the older adult. This study aims to verify the relationship of fear of falling with the physical fitness of older adults inserted in a community physical exercise program. The sample included 308 older adults, aged ³ 65 years (86.8% female; age 74.78 ± 5.72 years, height 1.56 ± 0.08 m, weight 67.13 ± 12.14 kg), from Baixo Alentejo, Portugal. The study involved collecting indicators on the participants' sociodemographic characteristics, the history of falls, fear of fall (FES-I Portugal scale); level of physical activity (IPAQ-E - short version) and physical fitness indicators (Rikli & Jones, 2013). There were significant associations between fear of falling and physical fitness variables. Low fear of falling seems to be related to better lower strength (p <.001), agility and dynamic balance (p <.001), and cardiorespiratory fitness (p <.001). reporting a relationship of increased fear of falling and decreased physical fitness levels. The results reveal that a low fear of falling is related to better functional capacity. In order to contribute to the maintenance and development of essential physical capacities and avoid a decrease in quality of life, we reinforce the importance of physical exercise programs that include strength, agility, balance and cardiorespiratory fitness, integrated in multifactorial interventions. These strategies can, through the promotion and maintenance of functional capacity, create a better perception of competence and consequently reduce the fear of falling in older adults.

Biografía del autor/a

Vania Azevedo Ferreira Brandao de Loureiro, Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Escola Superior de Educação, Departamento de Artes, Humanidades e Desporto, Beja, Portugal

1 Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Escuela Superior de Educación, Departamento de Artes, Humanidades y Deporte, Beja, Portugal
2 Laboratorio de Actividad Física y Salud, Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Beja, Portugal
3 ISAMB, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Lisboa, Portugal

Margarida Isabel Boteta Gomes

1 Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Escuela Superior de Educación, Departamento de Artes, Humanidades y Deporte, Beja, Portugal

2 Laboratorio de Actividad Física y Salud, Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Beja, Portugal

Ana Ruivo Alves

1 Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Escuela Superior de Educación, Departamento de Artes, Humanidades y Deporte, Beja, Portugal

2 Laboratorio de Actividad Física y Salud, Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Beja, Portugal

4 Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Deporte, Ciencias de la Salud y Desarrollo Humano (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal

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Publicado

2022-01-06

Cómo citar

Brandao de Loureiro, V. A. F., Gomes, M. I. B., & Alves, A. R. (2022). Miedo a caer y capacidad funcional de mayores a vivir en la comunidad (Fear of falling and physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults). Retos, 43, 495–502. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.88588

Número

Sección

Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas