Implicaciones prácticas de la pedagogía no-lineal en la formación del Profesorado de Educación Física durante una sesión de expresión corporal: hacia el borde del caos (Practical implications of the non-linear pedagogy in future physical Education Teacher

Towards the edge of chaos


  • Teresa Valverde-Esteve Universidad de Valencia


Palabras clave:

improvisación, emociones, actuación, cognición, creatividad en movimiento, límites, (Improvisation, emotions, performance, cognition, movement creativity, boundaries)


Durante la improvisación en movimiento, las respuestas creativas, emocionales y perceptivas dependen de cada individuo. Este estudio tiene por objeto analizar en la muestra participante los temas de actuación, sentimientos y la respuesta a una improvisación de danza de estilo clástico durante un minuto, con la restricción dada de “zapatillas mágicas”. La muestra estuvo formada por 65 estudiantes del Máster de Formación en Profesorado, quienes anotaron en un diario comentarios referidos a sensaciones, emociones, actitudes, desafíos y cognición tras la realización de una improvisación de una actuación durante un minuto de expresión corporal. Los temas de desempeño fueron especialmente dirigidos a la incapacidad para realizar actividades físicas que superaron a lo largo de un desafío. Sus diarios también relataron su timidez, su cambio de mente para descubrir nuevas personas una vez cambiada su forma de pensar, especialmente al acercarse a los demás, mientras otros estudiantes se refirieron a sensaciones como el paso de la tristeza a la alegría, la timidez a la apertura de actitud, así como la superación de obstáculos con la ayuda de compañeros. Entre las implicaciones prácticas, sugerimos que las restricciones de la tarea pueden aumentar las posibilidades del movimiento durante las sesiones de expresión corporal, así como la participación más cognitiva del alumnado, así como la negociación de sus propios límites.

Abstract. During improvisation in movement, the creativity, emotional and perceptual responses depend on each individual. This study aims to analyse the individuals’ performance topics, feelings and response to a specific one-minute classical-style dance improvisation with the given constraint of “magic shoes”. The sample was formed by 65 students of the Teacher Training Master degree, who wrote down in a diary comments referring to sensations, emotions, attitudes, challenges and cognition after one minute of body expression improvising performance. The performance topics were specially addressed to the inability to perform physical activities that they overcame along their performance. Their diaries also reported their shyness and an open mind to discover new people once they changed their way of thinking, especially when getting closer to others, while other students referred to sensations such as passing from sadness to happiness, shyness to openness, and the attitude of overcoming an obstacle with the help of their classmates. When putting this into practice, it is suggested that task constraints may increase the movement possibilities during body expression, but also the deeper cognitive involvement of the students, such as the negotiations of their own boundaries. 


Addessi, A. R., Mafiolli, M., and Annelli, F. (2015). The MIROR Platform for Young Children’s Music and Dance Creativity: Reflexive Interaction meets Body-gesture, Embodied Cognition, and Laban Educational Dance. Journal of the Early Childhood Music and Movement Association, 10 (1), 1-8.
Atencio, M., Yi, C. J., Clara, T. W. K., and Miriam, L. C. Y. (2014). Using a complex and nonlinear pedagogical approach to design practical primary physical education lessons. European Physical Education Review, 20(2), 244-263.
Bak, P. (1999). How Nature Works: the science of self-organized criticality. (2.a ed.). Springer-Verlag.
Balagué, N., Torrents, C., Hristovski, R., Davids, K., and Araújo, D. (2013). Overview of complex systems in sport. Journal of Systems Science and Complexity, 26(1), 4-13.
Biesta, G., and Osberg, D. C. (2010). Complexity, education, and politics: From the inside out and outside in. Sense Publishers.
Blom, L. A., and Chaplin, L. T. (1988). The moment of movement: Dance improvisation. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburgh Pre.
Chaitin, G., Chaitin, V., and Abrahão, F. S. (2014). Metabiology: the origins of biologic creativity. Investigación y Ciencia.
Chow, J. Y., and Atencio, M. (2014). Complex and nonlinear pedagogy and the implications for physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 19(8), 1034-1054.
Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., Shuttleworth, R., Renshaw, I., and Araujo, D. (2006). Nonlinear pedagogy: a constraints-led framework for understanding emergence of game play and movement skills. Nonlinear dynamics, psychology, and life sciences, 10(1), 71-103.
Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., Shuttleworth, R., Renshaw, I., and Araújo, D. (2007). The role of nonlinear pedagogy in physical education. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 251-278.
Crawford, D. W., and Godbey, G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure sciences, 9(2), 119-127.
Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., and Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure sciences, 13(4), 309-320.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). Motivation and creativity: Toward a synthesis of structural and energistic approaches to cognition. New Ideas in psychology, 6(2), 159-176.
Davids, K. and Araújo D (2010). The concept of ‘Organismic Asymmetry’ in sport science, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7, 633–640.
Davids, K., Chow, J. Y., and Shuttleworth, R. (2005). A Constraints-based Framework for Nonlinear Pedagogy in Physical Education1. New Zealand Physical Educator, 38(1), 17-29.
de Saá Guerra, Y., Sarmiento Montesdeoca, S., García Manso, J. M., Martín González, J. M., Navarro Valdivielso, M., Rodriguez Ruiz, D., … Quiroga Escudero, M. (2016). Exercise and Alzheimer’s: The body as a whole. Revista Andaluza de Medicina Del Deporte, 10(3), 120-124.
Frank, T. D., Michelbrink, M., Beckmann, H., and Schöllhorn, W. I. (2008). A quantitative dynamical systems approach to differential learning: self-organization principle and order parameter equations. Biological cybernetics, 98(1), 19-31.
Glück, J., Ernst, R., and Unger, F. (2002). How creatives define creativity: Definitions reflect different types of creativity. Communication Research Journal, 14(1), 55-67.
Gómez-Criado, C., & Valverde-Esteve, T. Nonlinear pedagogy and its application in a volleyball didactic unit: a practical approach (La pedagogía no lineal y su aplicación en una unidad didáctica de voleibol: un enfoque práctico). Retos, (39), 805-810.
Goodwin, B. (2002). How the Leopard Changed Its Spots. [Las Manchas Del Leopardo]. Tusquets Editor.
Greenwood, D., Davids, K., and Renshaw, I. (2012). How elite coaches' experiential knowledge might enhance empirical research on sport performance. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 7(2), 411-422.
Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5(9), 444-454.
Guilford, J. P., and Strom, R. D. (1978). Creatividad y educación. Paidós.
Hristovski, R., Davids, K., Araujo, D., and Passos, P. (2011). Constraints-induced emergence of functional novelty in complex neurobiological systems: a basis for creativity in sport. Nonlinear Dynamics-Psychology and Life Sciences, 15(2), 175-206.
Jackson, E. L., Crawford, D. W., and Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiation of leisure constraints. Leisure sciences, 15(1), 1-11.
Janemalm, L., Quennerstedt, M., and Barker, D. (2018). What is complex in complex movement? A discourse analysis of conceptualizations of movement in the Swedish physical education curriculum. European Physical Education Review, 1-15.
Jess, M., Keay, J., & Carse, N. (2016). Primary physical education: A complex learning journey for children and teachers. Sport, Education and Society, 21(7), 1018-1035.
Kauffman, S. A. (1995). At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity. Oxford University Press.
Kelso, J. S. (1995). Dynamic patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kirsh, D. (2010). Thinking with external representations. Ai and Society, 25(4), 441-454.
Kuckartz U (2013). Qualitative Text Analysis: A guide to Methods, Practice and Using Software. SAGE Publications.
Kugler, P. N., Kelso, J. S., and Turvey, M. T. (1980). On the concept of coordinative structures as dissipative structures: I. Theoretical lines of convergence. Tutorials in motor behavior, 3, 3-47.
Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford University Press.
López Tejeda, A. (2005). La creatividad en las actividades motrices. Apunts, 20-28.
Lowenfeld, V. and Lamber, Brittain (1966). Creative Mental Growth (4th ed). Macmillan.
Łucznik, K. (2015). Between minds and bodies: Some insights about creativity from dance improvisation. Technoetic Arts, 13(3), 301-308.
Torrents, C., Hristovski, R., and Balagué-Serre, N. (2013). Creatividad y emergencia espontánea de habilidades de danza. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, (24), 129-134.
Newell, K.M. (1986). Constraints on the development of coordination. In M.G. Wade and H.T.A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control, pp.341-361. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Nicolis, G., and Prigogine, I. (1977). Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order through Fluctuations (1.a ed.). John Wiley and Sons.
Patterson, T. S. (2001). Constraints: An integrated viewpoint. Illuminare, 7(1), 30-38.
Pol, R., Hristovski, R., Medina, D., and Balague, N. (2018). From microscopic to macroscopic sports injuries. Applying the complex dynamic systems approach to sports medicine: a narrative review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 53(19), 1214-1220.
Poutanen, P. (2013). Creativity as seen through the complex systems perspective. Interdisciplinary Studies Journal, 2(3), 207-217.
Renshaw, I., Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., and Hammond, J. (2010). A constraints-led perspective to understanding skill acquisition and game play: A basis for integration of motor learning theory and physical education praxis?. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15(2), 117-137.
Ribeiro, M. M., and Fonseca, A. (2011). The empathy and the structuring sharing modes of movement sequences in the improvisation of contemporary dance. Research in Dance Education, 12(2), 71-85.
Sánchez, M. D. P., Martínez, O. L., García, C. F., and García, M. R. B. (2003). Adaptación de la prueba figurativa del test de pensamiento creativo de Torrance en una muestra de alumnos de los primeros niveles educativos. Revista de investigación Educativa, 21(1), 201-213.
Sawyer, R. K. (2012). The science of human innovation: Explaining creativity. Oxford University Press.
Shusterman, R. (1999). Somaesthetics: A disciplinary proposal. The Journal of aesthetics and art criticism, 57(3), 299-313.
Smith, R. W. (1987). Leisure of disable tourists: Barriers to participation. Annals of tourism research, 14(3), 376-389.
Storey, B., and Butler, J. (2013). Complexity thinking in PE: game-centred approaches, games as complex adaptive systems, and ecological values. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 18(2), 133-149.
Torrance, E. P. (2003). Reflection on emerging insights on the educational psychology of creativity. The educational psychology of creativity, 273-286.
Torrents Martín, C., Ric, Á., and Hristovski, R. (2015). Creativity and emergence of specific dance movements using instructional constraints. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(1), 65-74.
Torrents, C., Castañer, M., and Anguera, M. T. (2011). Dancing with complexity: Observation of emergent patterns in dance improvisation. Education, Physical Training, Sport, 80(1), 76-81.
Solé, R., and Bascompte, J. (2006). Self-organization in complex ecosystems. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Torrents, Mateu, Planas and Dinosôva (2011). The possibilities of expressive movement and creative dance tasks to provoke emotional responses. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 20(2), 401-412.
Valero-Matas, J. A., Valero-Oteo, I., Coca, J. R., and Laurencio Leyva, A. (2016). Creatividad y educación para el siglo XXI desde una perspectiva sociológica. Revista de Investigaciones Políticas y Sociológicas, 15(2), 201-222.
Weisberg, R. W. (2006). Creativity: Understanding innovation in problem solving, science, invention, and the arts. John Wiley and Sons.
Williams, A.M., K. Davids, and J.G. Williams. (1999). Visual perception and action in sport. E and FN Spon.
Wreen, M. (2015). Creativity. Philosophia, 43, 891–913.
Zausner, T. (1996). The creative chaos: Speculations on the connection between non-linear dynamics and the creative process. In W. Sulis and A. Combs (Eds.), Nonlinear dynamics in human behavior (pp. 343-349). River Egde.
Zeibig, D. (2015). Estrategias para un pensamiento creativo. Mente y cerebro, (70), 36-41.




Cómo citar

Valverde-Esteve, T. (2021). Implicaciones prácticas de la pedagogía no-lineal en la formación del Profesorado de Educación Física durante una sesión de expresión corporal: hacia el borde del caos (Practical implications of the non-linear pedagogy in future physical Education Teacher: Towards the edge of chaos. Retos, 40, 231–240.



Divulgación y/o experiencias didácticas empíricas. Intercambio de propuestas y experiencias desarrollas e investigadas