Genética y fútbol: asociación de los polimorfismos genéticos ACTN3 y ACE-I/D en jugadores de fútbol: Revisión literaria (Genetic and soccer: association of ACTN3 and ACE-I/D genetic polymorphisms in soccer players: Literary review)

Autores/as

  • Wilson Arroyo Moya Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales U.D.C.A

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.79347

Palabras clave:

ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X, fútbol, genética deportiva, rendimiento, polimorfismo. (ACE I / D, soccer, sports genetics, performance, polymorphism)

Resumen

 

Se ha comprobado y establecido que alrededor del 66% de los componentes del rendimiento y estado del atleta se explican por los factores hereditarios. Dos de los polimorfismos genéticos mas estudiados con relación al rendimiento deportivo en la ultima década, son el ACTN3 R577X y el ACE I/D. El objetivo de este estudio fue resumir las posibles asociaciones de ambos polimorfismos y el rendimiento en jugadores de fútbol, determinando la combinación alélica y genotípica que más destaca en esta población y, además, observar las relaciones de estos a nivel físico y fisiológico. Para la realización de este estudio se llevaron a cabo dos fases, una primera de revisión bibliográfica y una segunda fase de clasificación y análisis de la información. Los estudios evidencian una mayor influencia de los alelos ACE-D y ACTN-R, y de los genotipos ACE-ID y ACTN-RR. Se observó que los sujetos con estas combinaciones tenían mejores rendimientos es pruebas de velocidad y fuerza. Por otro lado, el polimorfismo ACTN3 está directamente relacionado con las lesiones musculares. En conclusión, se pudo observar una relación entre los polimorfismos genéticos y el rendimiento en jugadores de fútbol. Los componentes genéticos se pueden integrar como un nuevo componente dentro de la caracterización del deporte y como una herramienta dentro de un modelo de identificacción y detección de talentos en el fútbol juvenil. Además, los biomarcadores genéticos podrían ser responsables en un futuro, del estudio del riesgo de lesiones para que se optimice mucho más el rendimiento en el fútbol profesional.

Abstract. It has been verified and established that around 66% of the components of the athlete's performance and state are explained by hereditary factors. Two of the most studied genetic polymorphisms in relation to sports performance in the last decade are ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D. The aim of this study was to summarize the possible associations of both polymorphisms and the performance in soccer players, determining the allelic and genotypic combination that stands out the most in this population and, also, to observe their relationships at the physical and physiological level. In order to complete this study, two phases were carried out, the first one of literature review and, the second one which covered the information classification and analysis. The studies show a greater influence of the ACE-D and ACTN-R alleles, and higher presence of the ACE-ID and ACTN-RR genotypes. Subjects with these combinations were found to perform better on speed and strength tests. On the other hand, the ACTN3 polymorphism is directly related to muscle injuries. In conclusion, a relationship between genetic polymorphisms and performance in soccer players could be observed. Genetic components can be integrated as a new component within the characterization of sport and as a tool within a model of identification and detection of talents in youth soccer. In addition, genetic biomarkers could be responsible, in the future, for the study of the risk of injury so that performance in professional soccer is much more optimized.

Biografía del autor/a

Wilson Arroyo Moya, Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales U.D.C.A

Profesional en Ciencias del Deporte

Facultad de ciencias del deporte. U.D.C.A

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2021-01-01

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Arroyo Moya, W. (2021). Genética y fútbol: asociación de los polimorfismos genéticos ACTN3 y ACE-I/D en jugadores de fútbol: Revisión literaria (Genetic and soccer: association of ACTN3 and ACE-I/D genetic polymorphisms in soccer players: Literary review). Retos, 39, 929–936. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.79347

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