Evaluación por acelerometría del ejercicio realizado por escolares chilenos durante una clase de educación física y su relación con el estado ponderal (Accelerometer–based assessment of exercise in Chilean schoolchildren during a physical education class

  • Marcelo Tuesta-Roa Universidad Andrés Bello. Laboratorio de Fisiología Cardiovascular, Centro de Rehabilitación Cardiovascular, Fundación Doctor Jorge Kaplan Meyer.
  • Rodrigo Yañez-Sepulveda Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaiso
  • Fernando Barraza-Gómez Universidad Viña del Mar
  • Alfredo Polgatiz-Gajardo Universidad Mayor
  • Eduardo Báez-San Martín Universidad de Playa Ancha.
Palabras clave: Gasto energético, Educación Física, Acelerometría (Physical education, accelerometry, body mass index)

Resumen

Introducción: La clase de educación física (CEF) debería ser capaz de activar las recomendaciones de ejercicio necesario para para promover un estilo de vida saludable en los niños. Objetivo: Comparar la actividad metabólica, gasto energético, cantidad de ejercicio e intensidad de esfuerzo físico realizado durante una CEF en niños en relación a su estado ponderal. Participantes y Métodos: Un total de 63 niños (8.0 ± 1.4 años) y 57 niñas escolares (8.3 ± 1.6 años) fueron distribuidos en los grupos normopeso (NP), sobrepeso (SP) y obesos (OB) según su índice de masa corporal, y analizados sus desplazamientos corporales con acelerómetros durante una CEF. Resultados: El gasto energético relativo al peso corporal inducido por el ejercicio fue mayor en el grupo NP (4.7 ± 1.8 kcal/kg) respecto al SP (3.4 ± 1.7 kcal/kg) y OB (2.8 ± 1.3 kcal/kg) con P <0.05. Asimismo, el grupo NP se mantuvo más tiempo de la CEF en intensidad de ejercicio muy vigoroso (2.3 ± 2.2 min) y menos en ejercicio ligero (9.5 ± 2.6 min) que el grupo OB (1.8 ± 2.5 min y 11.1 ± 2,3 min, respectivamente) con P <0.05. No hubo diferencias en la cantidad de movimiento (número de pasos) y actividad metabólica (MET) entre los grupos (P >0.05). Conclusión: Los escolares NP son capaces de gastar más energía en relación a su peso corporal y con una mayor intensidad de ejercicio que sus pares OB durante una CEF.


Abstract. Background: The physical education subject (PES) should be capable of activating the exercise recommendations required to promote healthy lifestyle in children. Objective: To compare metabolic activity, energy expenditure, amount of exercise, and intensity of physical effort in children during a PES class, and to relate them to their body mass index. Participants and Methods: A total of 120 schoolchildren (63 boys aged 8.0 ± 1.4 years old; 57 girls aged 8.3 ± 1.6 years old) were grouped in normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB) categories based on their body mass index, and their body movements were measured with accelerometer during a PES class. Results: Energy expenditure related to body weight induced by exercise was higher in the NW group (4.7 ± 1.8 kcal/kg) than in the OW (3.4 ± 1.7 kcal/kg) and OB (2.8 ± 1.3 kcal/kg) groups, with P<0.05. Additionally, the NW group remained at very vigorous effort levels longer during the PES class (2.3 ± 2.2 min), as well as they spent less time on light exercise (9.5 ± 2.6 min) than the OB group (1.8 ± 2.5 min and 11.1 ± 2.3 min, respectively), with P<0.05. There were no differences in the number of movements (total steps) and metabolic activity (MET) between groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: NW schoolchildren are able to spend more energy in relation to their body weight and with a greater intensity of exercise than their OB peers during a PES class.

Biografía del autor/a

Marcelo Tuesta-Roa, Universidad Andrés Bello. Laboratorio de Fisiología Cardiovascular, Centro de Rehabilitación Cardiovascular, Fundación Doctor Jorge Kaplan Meyer.

Escuela Kinesiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Rehabilitación, Universidad Andrés Bello

Rodrigo Yañez-Sepulveda, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaiso

Grupo IRyS, Escuela de Educación Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.

Fernando Barraza-Gómez, Universidad Viña del Mar

Escuela de Educación, Pedagogía en Educación Física, Universidad Viña del Mar

Alfredo Polgatiz-Gajardo, Universidad Mayor

Facultad de Educación, Universidad Mayor

Eduardo Báez-San Martín, Universidad de Playa Ancha.

Departamento de Deportes y Recreación, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, Universidad de Playa Ancha. 

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Publicado
2019-08-07
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas