Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, hábitos alimentarios y actividad física y su relación sobre el rendimiento académico (Prevalence of overweight and obesity, exercise, and dietary habits, and their relation with academic achievement)

Álvaro Iglesias, Elena Planells, Jorge Molina López

Resumen


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad así como evaluar la práctica de actividad física y pautas alimentarias en niños escolares de 3º Ciclo de Educación Primaria y su relación con el rendimiento escolar. Un total de 115 niños de 5 y 6º de Educación Primaria fueron seleccionados en escuelas públicas de Bollullos del Condado (Huelva). La composición corporal se determinó mediante impedancia bioeléctrica (Tanita MC-980), la actividad física mediante el cuestionario PAQ-A, los hábitos alimentarios mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo, hábitos y prácticas de alimentación para escolares y el rendimiento académico con las calificaciones medias del trimestre anterior. Se observó una mayor práctica de actividad física y mayor masa muscular y ósea por parte de los chicos que las chicas. Las cifras de sobrepeso y/o obesidad y/o porcentaje graso resultaron ser elevadas y el consumo de alimentos básicos reducido, observándose relación entre un bajo consumo de frutas, verduras y lácteos con un peor rendimiento académico. Existe la necesidad de fomentar una educación en hábitos saludables, con la finalidad de aumentar la práctica de actividad física y mejores hábitos alimentarios, repercutiendo así sobre el rendimiento académico.


Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as to evaluate physical activity and food frequency patterns in school-aged children from the 3rd cycle of Primary Education, and their relationship with academic achievement. A total of 115 students were selected from 5th and 6th grades of public primary schools in Bollullos del Condado (Huelva). Body composition was assessed through Tanita MC-980, physical activity through the PAQ-A questionnaire, dietary habits using a food frequency consumption questionnaire, and academic performance by reviewing students’ grades from the previous term. Results showed greater physical activity practice together with greater muscular and bone mass in boys compared to girls. Regarding fat percentage, a high prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was observed. The food consumption analysis revealed a reduced consumption of basic groups of food in contrast with unhealthier food; a relation between lower consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products and lower academic performance was observed. There is a need to promote healthy habits education, with the aim of increasing the practice of physical activity, as well as to improve dietary habits, which have an impact on academic performance.


Palabras clave


Rendimiento Académico; Actividad Física; Adolescentes; Hábitos Alimentarios (Academic achievement, physical activity, adolescents, dietary habits)

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Referencias


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