Efecto del foco atencional sobre el aprendizaje de las habilidades deportivas individuales (Effect of attentional focus on the learning of individual sports skills)

Pablo Camacho Lazarraga

Resumen


La focalización de la atención de un sujeto puede tener una importante influencia en el aprendizaje y el rendimiento motor de una habilidad deportiva, viéndose ésta condicionada en gran medida por el tipo de retroalimentación suministrada. Numerosos estudios han demostrado que centrar la atención en los efectos del movimiento favorece un desempeño inmediato eficaz. Pero también se han realizado intervenciones con diferentes resultados. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar y evaluar sistemáticamente la literatura relacionada con la estrategia de focalización externa e interna para el aprendizaje de una habilidad deportiva individual. Se consultaron las bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus, SportDiscus With Full Text y PsycInfo, además de otras fuentes de investigación. Se revisaron los títulos, resúmenes y textos completos. Se seleccionaron 37 estudios que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión para su elegibilidad. Los resultados indican que, en líneas generales, reducir la cantidad de información que se le suministra a los sujetos beneficia el aprendizaje y la retención de una habilidad deportiva, ya que la carga atencional disminuye considerablemente, permitiendo con ello disponer de mayores recursos durante su ejecución. Las principales variables moderadoras de los resultados son el tipo de habilidad, el grado de dificultad de la tarea, la edad y el nivel de pericia de los participantes. Estas conclusiones deberían analizarse con cautela, debido al escaso número de artículos localizados y que no podemos asegurar que la estrategia de focalización seguida por los sujetos haya sido únicamente la inicialmente establecida.

The focus of the attention of a subject can have an important influence on the learning and motor performance of a sports skill, seeing it conditioned to a large extent by the type of feedback provided. Numerous studies have shown that focusing attention on the effects of movement favors effective immediate performance. But there have also been interventions with different results. The objective of the present study is to review and systematically evaluate the literature related to the strategy of external and internal targeting for the learning of an individual sports skill. The Web of Science, Scopus, SportDiscus With Full Text and PsycInfo databases were consulted, as well as other research sources. The titles, abstracts and complete texts were reviewed. We selected 37 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for eligibility. The results indicate that, in general terms, reducing the amount of information provided to the subjects benefits learning and the retention of a sports skill, since the attentional load decreases considerably, thereby allowing subjects to have greater resources during its execution. The main moderating variables of the results are the type of skill, the degree of difficulty of the task, the age and the level of expertise of the participants. These conclusions should be analyzed with caution, due to the limited number of localized articles and to which we can not assure that the targeting strategy followed by the subjects was only the initially established one.


Palabras clave


Retroalimentación, instrucciones, focalización externa, focalización interna, aprendizaje motor (Feedback, instructions, external focus, internal focus, motor learning)

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Referencias


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