Efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza y suplementación en personas vegetarianas: Revisión sistemática (Effects of strength training and supplementation in vegetarian people: Systematic review)

Jose Antonio Rodríguez-Gandullo, Francisco Álvarez-Barbosa

Resumen


El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de un entrenamiento de fuerza más una suplementación adicional sobre deportistas adultos no profesionales y vegetarianos. Una revisión sistemática de las bases de datos MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, SportDiscus y WOS (Web of Science) fue realizada siguiendo el modelo PICO, utilizando términos que representasen a personas vegetarianas de entre 18 y 64 años que hubiesen realizado una intervención basada en un entrenamiento de fuerza más suplementación. Siguiendo el procedimiento PRISMA, de los 62 estudios encontrados tan solo 3 cumplieron todos los criterios por lo que fueron analizados en su totalidad para poder ser incluidos en la revisión. La calidad metodológica de los estudios se evaluó mediante la escala PEDro. El estudio de Shomrat et al. (2000) la suplementación con creatina provocó un incremento de la masa corporal y potencia media. El estudio de Burke et al. (2003) obtuvo con la suplementación de creatina incrementos en la fosfocreatina (PCr), creatina total (TCr), fuerza, fibras musculares de tipo II y tejido magro, siendo estos cambios más significativos en las personas vegetarianas. Por último, en el estudio de Burke et al. (2008), el factor de crecimiento insulínico de tipo 1 (IGF-1) se incrementó en un 67%, con mayor acumulación en el grupo que fue suplementado con creatina. A raíz de estos resultados se puede concluir que la suplementación con creatina puede provocar efectos positivos en el rendimiento de los deportistas vegetarianos, ya que puede cubrir ciertas carencias derivadas de la dieta vegetariana.


Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of strength training plus additional supplementation on non-professional adult athletes who are vegetarian. A systematic review of MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, SportDiscus, and WOS (Web of Science) databases was performed following the PICO model, using terms related to vegetarians aged between 18 and 64 years who realized an intervention based on strength training and supplementation. Following the PRISMA statement, of the 62 studies found only 3 met all the inclusion criteria and were analyzed entirely to be included in the review. The methodological quality of the studies was performed using the PEDro scale. The study of Shomrat et al. (2000) with creatine supplementation resulted in an increase in body mass and power. The study of Burke et al. (2003), based on creatine supplementation, obtained an increase of phosphocreatine (PCr), total creatine (TCr), strength, type II muscle fibers, and lean tissue. These changes were significant in vegetarians. Finally, in a study of Burke et al. (2008), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased by 67%, with higher accumulation in the group that was supplemented with creatine. As a consequence of these results we can conclude that creatine supplementation could have positive effects on the performance of vegetarians due to the fact that it could cover certain shortcomings derived from the vegetarian diet.


Palabras clave


vegetarianos; adultos; entrenamiento de fuerza; suplementación; creatina (vegetarians; adults; strength training; supplementation; creatine)

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Referencias


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