Morphological characteristics and motor skills of young students with different levels of engagement in physical activities (Características morfológicas y habilidades motrices de estudiantes jóvenes con diferentes niveles de participación en actividad

Maja Batez, Branko Krsmanović, Milena Mikalački, Nebojša Čokorilo, Marijana Simić, Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero


The overall orientation of the research problem is focused on the physical activity level of the participants from the aspect of different intensities of motor engagement and their impact on morphological characteristics and motor skills with an intention of determining whether there are statistically significant differences between groups. In a sample of 103 students, aged between 18 and 20 years (18.9 ± 0.4), the female students were divided into three subsamples according to the level of physical activity: highly active, active and inactive. The study which was conducted had a transversal character. The data obtained in the survey were analysed using the univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (MANOVA) statistical methods. The motor skills mere monitored by the use of the Eurofit Test Battery (wide-angle seated forward bend, standing long jump, pull-up endurance, 10 x 5m shuttle run and endurance shuttle run- beep test). The following morphological characteristics were considered: height, weight, body mass index, percentage of muscular mass and fat mass, as well as waist circumference. The obtained results indicate the existence of statistically significant differences between the % body muscle mass´ groups (p < 0.05) and motor skills parameters (sit and reach, p<0.01; standing broad jump, bent arm hang, 10x5m shuttlerun, beep test, p<0.001) of participants according to physical activity level. In conclusion, participants with a high level of physical activities have higher average values than the participants with light level of physical activities when considering the variables for assessing pliability, strength and agility.

Resumen. La orientación general del problema de investigación se centra en el nivel de actividad física de las participantes desde el aspecto de diferentes intensidades de compromiso motor y su impacto en las características morfológicas y habilidades motrices con la intención de determinar si existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos. En una muestra de 103 alumnas, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 20 años (18,9 ± 0,4), las estudiantes fueron divididas en tres grupos de acuerdo con el nivel de actividad física de cada uno: muy activas, activas e inactivas. El estudio llevado a cabo tuvo un carácter transversal. Los datos obtenidos mediante cuestionarios fueron analizados utilizando un análisis de la varianza (ANOVA) y un análisis multivariante de la varianza (MANOVA). Las habilidades fueron controladas mediante la batería Eurofit y para las características morfológicas, se midió la altura, peso, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de masa muscular, masa grasa y la circunferencia de la cintura. Los resultados obtenidos indican la existencia de diferencias entre los grupos estudiados respecto al % de masa muscular (p <0.05) y las habilidades motrices (flexibilidad-inclinación hacia adelante, p<0.01; salto de longitud a pie, fuerza resistencia mediante flexión de brazos, 10 x 5 m carrera de ida y vuelta y Beep Test, p<0.001) de los participantes según el nivel de actividad física. En conclusión, las participantes con alto nivel de actividad física tienen mayores valores de habilidad motriz que las participantes que el resto en función de las variables flexibilidad, capacidad aeróbica, fuerza y agilidad.

Palabras clave

Physical test, physical activity, motor skills, young students, body composition (Test físicos, actividad física, habilidades motrices, estudiantes jóvenes, composición corporal)

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 2017.

Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Herrmann, S.D., Meckes, N. Bassett, J.R., Tudor-Locke, C. et al. (2011). Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(8), 1575-1581.

Amarya, S., Singh, K. & Sabharwal, M. (2014). Health consequences of obesity in the elderly. J Clin Gerontology & Geriatrics, 5(3):63-67.

American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) (2013). Guidelines for Exercise testing and Prescription. 9th ed. Philadelphia (PA):Lippincott, Wilkins, and Williams.

Asare, M. & Danquah, S.A. (2015). The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in Ghanaian adolescents. Child and Adolescents Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9:11.

Bauman, A. E., Reis, R. S., Sallis, J. F., Wells, J. C., Loos, R. J., Martin, B. W., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?. The lancet, 380(9838), 258-271.

Bielemann, R.M., Martinez-Mesa, J., & Gigante, D.P. (2013). Physical activity during life course and bone mass: a systematic review of methods and findings from cohort studies with young adults. BMC MusculoskeletDisord, 14, 77.

Božić, P., Ostojić, S., Berjan-Bačvarević, B., Radisavljević-Janić, S., Pažin, N., Milovanović, I., Mirkov, D. & Čaprić, G. (2016) Vodič za fizičku aktivnost i ishranu mladih. Fizička aktivnost i ishrana učenika srednjih škola. Beograd: Udruženje za sport i medicinu sporta

Bukara-Radujković, G., & Zdravković, D. (2009). Fizička aktivnost značajan faktor u sprečavanju gojaznosti u dečijem uzrastu. Medicinski pregled, (3-4), 107-113.

Cash, T.F., Novy, P.L., & Grant, J.R. (2004). Why do women exercise? Factor analisys and further validation of the reasons for the exercise inventory. Perceptual and motor skills, 78, 539-544.

Colado, J.C., Garcia-Masso, X., Rogers, M.E., Tella, V., Benavent, J., & Dantas, E.H. (2012). Effects of Aquatic and Dry Land Resistance Training Devices on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Human Kinetics, 32, 185-195.

Correa-Burrows, P., Burrows, R., Orellana, Y., & Ivanovic, D. (2015). The relationship between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes: a population study in Chilean schoolchildren. Public health nutrition, 18(11), 2022-2030.

Diamond, A. B. (2016). The cognitive benefits of exercise in youth. Current sports medicine reports, 14(4), 320-326.

Dishman, R.K., Heath, G.W., & Min, L.I. (2012). Measurement and Surveillance of Physical Activity and Fitness. In Physical Activity Epidemiology (2th ed.) (pp. 38-70). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Foong, Y.C., Aitken, D., Winzenberg, T., Otahal, P., Scott, D., & Jones, G. (2014). The association between physical activity and reduced body fat lessens with age-Results from a cross-sectional study in community dwelling older adults. Experimental Gerontology, 55, 107-112.

Finlayson G., Cecil J., Higgs S., Hill A., & Hetherington M. (2012). Susceptibility to weight gain. Eating behaviour traits and physical activity as predictors of weight gain during the first year of university. Appetite, 58, 1091-1098.

Hofman, J. (2006). Norms for fitness, performance and health. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics.

Howie, E. K., Campbell, A. C., & Straker, L. M. (2016). An active video game intervention does not improve physical activity and sedentary time of children at‐risk for developmental coordination disorder: a crossover randomized trial. Child: care, health and development, 42(2), 253-260.

Gupta, N., Goel, K., Shah, P., & Misra, A. (2012). Childhood Obesity in Developing Countries: Epidemiology, Determinants, and Prevention. Endocrine Reviews, 33(1), 48-70.

Karlsson, M., Magnusson, H., Karlsson, C., & Seeman, E. (2001). The duration of exercise as a regulator of bone mass. Bone, 28, 128-132.

Lowry, R., Lee, S.M., Fulton, J.E., Demissie, Z & Kann, L. (2013). Obesity and other correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among US high school students. Journal of obesity, 2013: 276318.

Luque, G.T., García-Martos, M., Gutiérrez, C.V., & Vallejo, N.G. (2010). Papel del ejercicio físico en la prevención y tratamiento de la obesidad en adultos. Retos Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 18, 47-51.

Martyn-ST James, M., & Carroll, S. (2008). Meta-analysis of walking for preservation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Bone, 43, 521-531.

Moravec, R., Kampmiller, T., & Sedlácek, J. (1996). Eurofit, Slovenska vedeckaspoločnost pre telesni vihovu a šport. Bratislava: University of Presov.

Moreno, L. A., Gottrand, F., Huybrechts, I., Ruiz, J. R., González-Gross, M., DeHenauw, S., & HELENA Study Group. (2014). Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 5(5), 615-623.

National Healt Survey of Serbia. Republic of Serbia: Ministry of health, 2006.

Oviedo, G., Sánchez, J., Castro, R., Calvo, M., Sevilla, J.C., Iglesias, A…Guerra, M. (2013). Niveles de actividad física en población adolescente: estudio de caso. Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 23, 43-47.

Pano, G. (2014). Physical activity benefits for Alzheimer's disease patients (A Review). Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 9(1), 319-325.

Pate, R. R., Flynn, J. I., & Dowda, M. (2016). Policies for promotion of physical activity and prevention of obesity in adolescence. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 14(2), 47-53.

Pinto, D., Franzini, P.C., Pires, R., & Moya, J.M. (2017). Anthropometry and Physical Fitness of Latin American Adolescents. Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 31, 264-270.

Rakić, R., Božić-Krstić, V.I., & Pavlica, T. (2010). Age changes in height, weight and nutritional condition in adolescents from Novi Sad. ActaMorphologica et Antropologica,15, 217-219.

Ramires, V. V., Dumith, S. C., & Gonçalves, H. (2015). Longitudinal association between physical activity and body fat during adolescence: a systematic review. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12(9), 1344-1358.

Ross, W.D., Marfell-Jones, M.J., Kinanthropometry. (1991). In J.D. Mac Dougall; H.A. Wenger & H.J. Green (Eds). Physiological testing of the high performance athlete. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ruiz-Montero, P.J., Castillo-Rodriguez, A., Mikalacki, M., & Delgado-Fernández, M. (2015). Physical fitness comparison and quality of life between Spanish and Serbian elderly women through a physical fitness program. Collegium Antropologicum, 39(2), 411-417.

Seabra, A., Mendonça, D., Maia, J., Welk, G., Brustad, R., Fonseca, A. M., & Seabra, A. F. (2013). Gender, weight status and socioeconomic differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity in schoolchildren. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16(4), 320-326.

Shiroma, E. J., Cook, N. R., Manson, J. E., Moorthy, M. V., Buring, J. E., Rimm, E. B., & Lee, I. M. (2017). Strength Training and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 49(1), 40-46

Telford, R. M., Telford, R. D., Olive, L. S., Cochrane, T., & Davey, R. (2016). Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE, 11(3), e0150041.

Urrutia, S., Irazusta, S. Belardi, A., González, O. & Arruza, J.A. (2013). Relación entre el índice de masa corporal y la competencia percibida en adolescentes de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria. Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 24, 24-26.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2015) . Obesity and overweight. Available from:

World Health Organisation (WHO) (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic (No. 894). WHO: Geneva.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.