Complicarles la vida - una visión económica y financiera de las redes de tarjetas amarillas y rojas de los equipos de fútbol español (Making life difficult for others – an economic and financial insight into the networks of Spanish Soccer teams’ yellow and red cards)



Palabras clave:

Costes, Fútbol, Honorarios, Análisis de redes, Sanciones en el fútbol


Un partido de fútbol sin exhibición de tarjetas amarillas o rojas es muy poco común en la competición profesional. Las sanciones por el mal comportamiento de los jugadores tienen implicaciones éticas para el correcto funcionamiento de la competición. Por otro lado, las tarjetas están relacionadas con factores estratégicos del juego y pueden tener costes importantes para los equipos. El principal objetivo de este trabajo se centra en analizar las interacciones, patrones y determinantes de las relaciones que se dan entre los equipos en función de las sanciones disciplinarias impartidas y recibidas. Estudiamos las temporadas de la Liga Española de Fútbol Profesional desde 2010/2011 a 2018/2019, utilizando análisis de redes complejas. Consideramos el valor de las transferencias de los equipos y el perfil del árbitro como factores determinantes. Nuestra principal evidencia sugiere que ha habido una tendencia a la baja en el número de tarjetas exhibidas en los partidos a lo largo de las temporadas, aunque ha habido ingresos estables por honorarios para el organizador (RFEF). También identificamos diferentes perfiles de árbitros capaces de incrementar el número de tarjetas exhibidas a algunos equipos en particular. También observamos que los equipos que normalmente compiten por el mismo rango tienden a participar en partidos con un mayor número de tarjetas expuestas, pero las similitudes financieras entre los equipos competidores no son tan significativas para explicar la agresividad/exposición en los partidos.

Palabras clave: Costes, Fútbol, Sanciones, Network Analysis, Faltas de fútbol

Abstract. A soccer match without the exhibition of yellow or red cards is very uncommon in professional competition. Sanctions for bad behavior by players have ethical implications for the essential rules of healthy competition. On the other hand, the cards displayed are related to strategic factors of the game and they can have significant costs for the teams. The main objective of this work focuses on analyzing the interactions, patterns and determinants of the relationships that occur between the teams based on the disciplinary sanctions given and received. We study the seasons of the Spanish Professional Soccer League from 2010/2011 to 2018/2019, utilizing complex network analysis. We consider the value of the teams' transfers and the referee's profile as determining factors. Our major evidence suggests there has been a downtrend in the number of cards exhibited in the matches throughout the seasons, although there have been stable fee revenues for the organizer (RFEF). We also identify different profiles of referees able to increase the number of cards exhibited to some particular teams. We also observe that teams usually competing for the same rank tend to participate in matches with a higher number of exhibited cards, but financial similarities between the competing teams are not as significant for explaining the aggressiveness/exposure in the matches.

Keywords: Costs; Soccer; Fees; Network Analysis; Soccer sanctions


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Cómo citar

Reis Mourão, P., & Salgado Barandela, J. . (2024). Complicarles la vida - una visión económica y financiera de las redes de tarjetas amarillas y rojas de los equipos de fútbol español (Making life difficult for others – an economic and financial insight into the networks of Spanish Soccer teams’ yellow and red cards). Retos, 53, 530–538.



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas