Estudio analítico del impacto del cronotipo de edad y las preferencias horarias en el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de secundaria de origen social modesto (Analytical study of the impact of age chronotype and time preferences on the academic performance of secondary school students from a modest social background)

Autores/as

  • Ikram Sabaoui Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4127-6735
  • Said Lotfi Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0008-6145
  • Mohammed Talbi Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9262-2223

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.91415

Palabras clave:

circadian preference, circadian typology, chronotype, academic performance

Resumen

Los factores biológicos del ser humano están sujetos a ritmos circadianos tanto endógenos como exógenos. Los efectos de estos últimos sobre el rendimiento cognitivo, psicomotor y académico son gravosos. Durante los días laborables, las interacciones de los adolescentes están reguladas por el ritmo escolar, por un lado, y por las fluctuaciones biológicas, por otro. Sin embargo, hasta ahora ningún estudio ha investigado la relación del rendimiento académico con la edad y el cronotipo ni ha analizado las preferencias horarias de los estudiantes en cuanto a la revisión de los cursos y el estatus socioeconómico familiar en una población joven marroquí. Por esta razón, nos propusimos examinar el impacto de estas variables en los resultados escolares de adolescentes marroquíes cuya edad media es de 13 años, en función de su grado escolar. Estos estudiantes pertenecen a familias socialmente desfavorecidas con una media de cinco miembros. Para medir el cronotipo se utilizó el cuestionario "Morningness-Eveningness" (MEQ) a través de sus 19 preguntas de opción múltiple, mientras que las preferencias de revisión de los cursos en los días de clase y el estatus socioeconómico familiar se investigaron mediante una entrevista directiva. En cuanto a las medidas de rendimiento académico, se utilizó el promedio de notas (GPA), extraído de la "plataforma MASSAR" para cada asignatura escolar.La mayoría de la muestra es de tipo intermedio (51,91 ± 9,66), el 23,5% de ella es de tipo matutino mientras que el resto es de tipo vespertino. Los estudiantes de tipo matutino en todos los niveles de grado tuvieron un promedio de calificaciones más alto en comparación con los de tipo vespertino moderado. Los resultados mostraron que el cronotipo tiene un efecto principal tanto en las calificaciones de Humanística/lingüística (p < .024) como en las de Educación Física (p < .031). Mientras que la edad (p < .001), el nivel educativo de las madres y la situación económica de los padres tienen un efecto significativo sobre el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes. Los resultados obtenidos abogan por la consideración de la tipología circadiana de los estudiantes, los niveles de grado, las preferencias horarias y el estatus socioeconómico familiar a la hora de planificar el calendario escolar, con el objetivo de que los administradores realicen pequeños cambios en los patrones de programación que puedan mejorar el rendimiento académico a un coste legal.

Abstract. The biological factors of the human being are subject to both endogenous and exogenous circadian rhythms. The effects of the latter on cognitive, psychomotor and academic performance is burdensome. During the weekdays, the adolescent interactions are regulated by the school rhythm on the one hand and the biological fluctuations on the other. However, no studies till nowdays have investigated the relationship of academic performance with age and chronotype or analyzed  students’ time preferences of courses reviewing and familial socioeconomic status in a young Moroccan population. For this reason, we aimed to examine the impact of these variables on the scholar outcomes of Moroccan adolescents whose average age is 13 years, based on their grade levels.We used the “Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire (MEQ)” through its 19 multiple-choice questions to measure chronotype, while courses reviewing preferences on school days and familial socioeconomic status were investigated using a directive interview. As for the academic performance measures, we used the grade point average (GPA), extracted from “MASSAR platform” for each school subject.The majority of the sample is intermediate type (51.91 ± 9.66), 23.5% of it is morning type while the rest is evening type. Morning type students at all grade levels had a higher grade point average compared to moderate evening type. The results showed that chronotype has a main effect on both Humanistic/linguistic (p < .024) and Physical education grades (p < .031). While age (p< .001), mothers’ educational level and fathers financial status all have a significatif effect on students’ academic performance. Our results opt for the consideration of students’circadian typology, grade levels, time preferences and familial socioeconomic status when planning the school calendar, aiming from administrators to make small changes in the scheduling patterns that may improve the academic performance at a law-cost.

Biografía del autor/a

Ikram Sabaoui, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4127-6735

Observatory of Research in Didactics and University Pedagogy (ORDIPU), Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Sciences Ben M’Scik, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Mediouna, Casablanca 20100, Morocco.

Said Lotfi, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0008-6145

Multidisciplinary Laboratory In Education Sciences and Training Ingeneering (LMSEIF). Sport Science Assessment and Physical Activity Didactic. Normal Superior School (ENS), Hassan II University of Casablanca, BP 50069, Ghandi, Morocco.

Mohammed Talbi, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9262-2223

Observatory of Research in Didactics and University Pedagogy (ORDIPU), Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Sciences Ben M’Scik, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Mediouna, Casablanca 20100, Morocco.

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2022-09-28

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Sabaoui, I., Lotfi, S. ., & Talbi, M. . (2022). Estudio analítico del impacto del cronotipo de edad y las preferencias horarias en el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de secundaria de origen social modesto (Analytical study of the impact of age chronotype and time preferences on the academic performance of secondary school students from a modest social background). Retos, 46, 631–640. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.91415

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Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas