Procesos cognitivos en pequeños juegos (Cognitive processes in small-sided games)

Autores/as

  • Marcelo Couto Jorge Rodrigues Universidade Federal de Goiás
  • Lucas Savassi Figueiredo Centro de Instrução e Adaptação da Aeronáutica
  • Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira Universidade Federal de Goiás https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5749-6877
  • Lorenzo Laporta Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
  • Gustavo De Conti Teixeira Costa Universidade Federal de Goiás

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.90369

Palabras clave:

enseñando, deportes de equipo, juegos reducidos, procesos cognitivos, entrenamiento, toma de decisiones, (teaching; team sports; small-sided games; cognitive processes; training; decision making)

Resumen

Los deportes de equipo se practican en entornos muy imprevisibles, en los que los procesos cognitivos de los jugadores son fundamentales para tomar decisiones acertadas. Por ello, es importante que los entornos de entrenamiento ofrezcan a los jugadores múltiples posibilidades de juego, que les permitan desarrollar los procesos cognitivos relacionados con su capacidad de Toma de Decisiones. En consecuencia, es crucial entender cómo desarrollar los procesos cognitivos para optimizar los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje y aumentar el rendimiento deportivo. Por esta razón, el objetivo del presente punto de vista es discutir la adopción de los Pequeños Juegos (PJ) para el desarrollo de los procesos cognitivos relacionados con la Toma de Decisiones (percepción, conocimiento y decisión), teniendo en cuenta el papel de los entrenadores en este proceso. Así, las múltiples posibilidades de modificación de los PJ conducen a una mayor exigencia cognitiva a los jugadores, ya que éstos se apoyan con mayor frecuencia en los procesos perceptivo-cognitivos de memoria, conocimiento y decisión hacia la resolución de las situaciones siempre cambiantes que se viven en el juego. En este sentido, proponemos que el entrenador tenga el importante papel de analizar las necesidades de los alumnos y utilizar los PJ y sus diferentes manipulaciones. Se espera que estos juegos diversos promuevan la variabilidad de la práctica y favorezcan un entorno imprevisible con varias experiencias tácticas que representen una mayor demanda cognitiva. En otras palabras, dado que los procesos relacionados con la Toma de Decisiones necesitan ser activados más a menudo y de diferentes maneras durante los diversos PJ, se facilita el desarrollo de los procesos cognitivos.

Abstract. Team sports are played in highly unpredictable environments, in which players’ cognitive processes are critical to successful Decision Making. Thus, it is important that training settings provide players a variety of game situations that will allow them to develop the cognitive processes related to their Decision-Making capacity. Accordingly, it is crucial to understand how to develop the cognitive processes to optimize teaching-learning processes and increase sports performance. Therefore, the aim of this point of view is to discuss the adoption of Small-Sided Games (SSGs) to develop cognitive processes related to Decision Making (perception, knowledge, and decision) considering the coaches' role in this process. Indeed, the multiple possibilities of modification of the SSGs lead to more opportunities to develop players’ cognitive processes, since they rely more often on memory, knowledge, and decision towards solving the ever-changing situations experienced in the game. Hence, we propose that coaches have an important role in evaluating the players’ needs and proposing the use of SSGs and their different manipulations. These diverse games are expected to promote practice variability and favor an unpredictable environment with several tactical experiences that represent a greater cognitive demand. In other words, since the processes related to Decision Making need to be activated more often and in different ways during diverse situations experienced in SSGs, players are provided with more opportunities to develop their cognitive processes.

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2022-02-01

Cómo citar

Rodrigues, M. C. J., Figueiredo, L. S., de Lira, C. A. B., Laporta, L., & Costa, G. D. C. T. (2022). Procesos cognitivos en pequeños juegos (Cognitive processes in small-sided games). Retos, 44, 897–906. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.90369

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