Valores normativos de aptitud muscular y cardiorrespiratoria y su relación con variables antropométricas en adolescentes colombianos. Estudio multicéntrico (Normative values of muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness and their relationship with anthropomet

  • Brayan Esneider Patiño Palma Ministerio Colombiano del Deporte - Centro de Ciencias de Deporte CCD
  • Carlos Alberto Ramos Parrací Universidad del Tolima
  • Pedro Antonio Calero Saa Universidad Santiago de Cali
Palabras clave: Índice de masa corporal, Resistencia Cardiovascular, Grasa abdominal, Fuerza Muscular, (Reference Values, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscle Strength, Adolescent)

Resumen

Objetivos: Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron: 1. Establecer valores de referencia para la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria y la aptitud muscular. 2. Establecer la relación entre características antropométricas y parámetros de aptitud física. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio analítico, transversal, multicéntrico; Se evaluó a estudiantes de entre 12 y 18 años de 10 ciudades colombianas. La muestra fue de 3455 estudiantes con una confiabilidad del 95%, un poder estadístico del 84% y una correlación esperada de 0.30. Se tomaron en cuenta variables antropométricas, Índice de Fuerza General (GSI) y Capacidad Cardiopulmonar. Se realizó un análisis de varianza bidireccional (ANOVA bidireccional) con ajustes post hoc de Bonferroni. Se realizó el cálculo de los percentiles normalizados a partir del método de mínimos cuadrados (LMS) de Box-Cox Cole y Green (BCCG). Resultados: Se encontró un mayor rendimiento en los hombres en todas las pruebas realizadas, sin embargo, se evidencio un índice de masa corporal (IMC) promedio, índice de cintura y porcentaje de grasa más altos en las mujeres. Se identificaron correlaciones negativas débiles a moderadas entre la aptitud muscular y cardiopulmonar y las variables antropométricas. Además, se identificaron diferencias significativas entre GSI con la circunferencia de cintura y el porcentaje de grasa. Conclusión: La evaluación de la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria y el GSI son herramientas a considerar como un complemento a la evaluación de los programas académicos con objetivos de prevención en salud escolar.

Abstract. Objectives: The purposes of this research were: 1. To establish reference values for cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness. 2. To establish the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness parameters. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, multicentre, analytical study; students aged between 12 and 18 years from 10 Colombian cities were evaluated. The sample was 3455 students with a reliability of 95%, a statistical power of 84%, and an expected correlation of 0.30. Anthropometric variables, General Strength Index (GSI), and Cardiopulmonary Capacity were taken into account. A two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was performed with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments. A Box-Cox Cole and Green (BCCG) lest squares method (LMS) distribution was performed. Results: A higher performance was found on males in all tests performed, and a higher average body mass index (BMI), waist-height index, and fat percentage on the females. Weak to moderate negative correlations were identified between muscular and cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric variables. Additionally, significant differences were identified between GSI with waist circumference and fat percentage. Conclusion: Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment and GSI are tools to be considered as a complement to the evaluation of academic programs with school health prevention objectives.

Citas

Álvarez Caro, F., Díaz Martín, J. J., Riaño Galán, I., Pérez Solís, D., Venta Obaya, R., & Málaga Guerrero, S. (2011). Factores de riesgo cardiovascular clásicos y emergentes en escolares asturianos. Anales de Pediatria, 74(6), 388–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2011.01.007

Artero, E. G., Ruiz, J. R., Ortega, F. B., España-Romero, V., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Molnar, D., Gottrand, F., González-Gross, M., Breidenassel, C., Moreno, L. A., & Gutiérrez, A. (2011). Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: The HELENA study. Pediatric Diabetes, 12(8), 704–712. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5448.2011.00769.x

Black, N. E., Vehrs, P. R., Fellingham, G. W., George, J. D., & Hager, R. (2016). Prediction of VO2max in Children and Adolescents Using Exercise Testing and Physical Activity Questionnaire Data. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 87(1), 89–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2015.1124969

Carvajal, M., Castro, P., Dueñas, F., Martinez, J., Suarez, J., & Velásquez, G. (2012). Riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios. Rev.Salud.Hist.Sanid.on-Line, 7(2), 23–35.

Cole, T. J., & Green, P. J. (1992). Smoothing reference centile curves: The lms method and penalized likelihood. Statistics in Medicine, 11(10), 1305–1319. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.4780111005

Correa-Rodríguez, M., Ramírez-Vélez, R., Correa-Bautista, J. E., Castellanos-Vega, R. del P., Arias-Coronel, F., González-Ruíz, K., Carrillo, H. A., Schmidt-Riovalle, J., & González-Jiménez, E. (2018). Association of muscular fitness and body fatness with cardiometabolic risk factors: The FUPRECOL study. Nutrients, 10(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111742

Dantas, M., Alencar de Oliveira, P., Alves da Silva, T., Oliveira, F., & Schwingel, P. (2013). Association between indicators of corporal adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors among Brazilian adolescents. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 16(6), 69–78.

Dowd, K., Harrington, D., Hannigan, A., Purtill, H., Kelly, S. M., Macken, A. P., Moyna, N., O’Gorman, C. S., & Donnelly, A. E. (2016). The development of activity profiles in adolescent females and their association with adiposity. Pediatric Exercise Science, 28(1), 109–116. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2015-0081

Eckman, M., Gigliotti, C., Sutermaster, S., Butler, P. J., & Mehta, K. (2016). Using handgrip strength to screen for diabetes in developing countries. Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 40(1), 8–14. https://doi.org/10.3109/03091902.2015.1112855

El-gohary, T. M., Abd Elkader, S. M., Al-shenqiti, A. M., & Ibrahim, M. I. (2019). Assessment of hand-grip and key-pinch strength at three arm positions among healthy college students: Dominant versus non-dominant hand. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 14(6), 566–571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.10.001

Fonseca-Camacho, D. F., Hernández-Fonseca, J. M., González-Ruíz, K., Tordecilla-Sanders, A., & Ramírez-Vélez, R. (2015). Una mejor auto-percepción de la condición física se relaciona con menor frecuencia y componentes de síndrome metabólico en estudiantes universitarios. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 31(3), 1254–1263. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.31.3.8398

García-Artero, E., Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Mesa, J. L., Delgado, M., González-Gross, M., García-Fuentes, M., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Gutiérrez, Á., & Castillo, M. J. (2007). Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study). Revista Espanola de Cardiologia, 60(6), 581–588. https://doi.org/10.1157/13107114

Gómez-Campos, R., Vásquez, F. A., Pezoa-Fuentes, P., Rivera-Portugal, M., Luarte-Rocha, C., Urra-Albornoz, C., & Cossio-Bolaños, M. (2020). Pruebas de aptitud física que realizan los escolares. Salud(i)Ciencia, 23(8), 626–631. https://doi.org/10.21840/siic/161156

Grao-Cruces, A., Nuviala, A., & Fernández-Martínez, A. (2015). Valoración del programa Escuelas Deportivas: Composición corporal, actividad física y capacidad aeróbica en adolescentes (Assessment of the Sport Schools program: Body composition, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents). Retos, 27(27), 105–108. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i27.34357

Janssen, A., Leahy, A. A., Diallo, T. M. O., Smith, J. J., Kennedy, S. G., Eather, N., Mavilidi, M. F., Wagemakers, A., Babic, M. J., & Lubans, D. R. (2020). Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and mental health in older adolescents: A multi-level cross-sectional analysis. Preventive Medicine, 132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.105985

Kara, Ö., Kara, M., Akın, M. E., & Özçakar, L. (2021). Grip strength as a predictor of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Heart & Lung, 50(6), 743–747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2021.06.005

Kidokoro, T., Kohmura, Y., Fuku, N., Someya, Y., & Suzuki, K. (2020). Secular trends in the grip strength and body mass index of sport university students between 1973 and 2016: J-Fit+study. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 18(1), 21–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2019.08.002

Kim, Y. M., Kim, S., Bae, J., Kim, S. H., & Won, Y. J. (2021). Association between relative hand-grip strength and chronic cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal diseases in Koreans: A cross-sectional study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104181

Kodama, S., Saito, K., Tanaka, S., Maki, M., Yachi, Y., Asumi, M., Sugawara, A., Totsuka, K., Shimano, H., Ohashi, Y., Yamada, N., & Sone, H. (2009). Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: A meta-analysis. In JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol. 301, Issue 19, pp. 2024–2035). JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.681

Leong, D. P., Teo, K. K., Rangarajan, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Avezum, A., Orlandini, A., Seron, P., Ahmed, S. H., Rosengren, A., Kelishadi, R., Rahman, O., Swaminathan, S., Iqbal, R., Gupta, R., Lear, S. A., Oguz, A., Yusoff, K., Zatonska, K., Chifamba, J., … Yusuf, S. (2015). Prognostic value of grip strength: Findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The Lancet, 386(9990), 266–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6

Li, D., Guo, G., Xia, L., Yang, X., Zhang, B., Liu, F., Ma, J., Hu, Z., Li, Y., Li, W., Jiang, J., Gaisano, H., Shan, G., & He, Y. (2018). Relative handgrip strength is inversely associated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(FEB), 59. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00059

Lima-Serrano, M., Martínez-Montilla, J. M., Guerra-Martín, M. D., Vargas-Martínez, A. M., & Lima-Rodríguez, J. S. (2018). Factores relacionados con la calidad de vida en la adolescencia. Gaceta Sanitaria, 32(1), 68–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2016.06.016

Magee, M. K., White, J. B., Merrigan, J. J., & Jones, M. T. (2021). Does the multistage 20-m shuttle run test accurately predict vo2max in NCAA division I women collegiate field hockey athletes? Sports, 9(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060075

Matsuzaka, A., Takahashi, Y., Yamazoe, M., Kumakura, N., Ikeda, A., Wilk, B., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Validity of the multistage 20-m shuttle-run test for Japanese children, adolescents, and adults. Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(2), 113–125. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.16.2.113

Mayorga, D., Viciana, J., & Cocca, A. (2012). Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 659–668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.458

McGrath, R., Hackney, K. J., Ratamess, N. A., Vincent, B. M., Clark, B. C., & Kraemer, W. J. (2019). Absolute and Body Mass Index Normalized Handgrip Strength Percentiles by Gender, Ethnicity, and Hand Dominance in Americans. Advances in Geriatric Medicine and Research, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.20900/agmr20200005

Ortega, F., Artero, E., Ruiz, J. R., Espana, V., Jimenez, D., Vicente, G., Moreno, L., Manios, Y., Beghin, L., Ottevaere, C., Ciarapica, D., Sarri, K., Dietrich, S., Blair, S. N., Kersting, M., Molnar, D., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Gutierrez, A., Sjostrom, M., & Castillo, M. (2011). Physical fitness levels among European adolescents: the HELENA study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(1), 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.062679

Ortega, F. B., Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: Cohort study of one million participants. BMJ (Online), 345(7884). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e7279

Ortega, Francisco, Ruiz, J., Castillo, M., Moreno, L., González, M., Wärnberg, J., & Gutiérrez, A. (2005). Low level of physical fitness in Spanish adolescents. Relevance for future cardiovascular health (AVENA study). Revista Espanola de Cardiologia, 58(8), 898–909. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1885-5857(06)60372-1

Ortega, Francisco, Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: Cohort study of one million participants. BMJ (Online), 345(7884). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e7279

Pacheco, J., Ramírez, R., & Enrique, J. (2016). Índice general de fuerza y adiposidad como medida de la condición física relacionada con la salud en niños y adolescentes de Bogotá, Colombia: Estudio FUPRECOL. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 33(3), 556–564. https://doi.org/10.20960/nh.261

Palomino-Devia, C., González-Jurado, J. A., & Ramos-Parraci, C. A. (2017). Body composition and physical fitness in Colombian high school students from Ibagué. Biomedica : Revista Del Instituto Nacional de Salud, 37(3), 408–415. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v37i3.3455

Patiño Palma, B. E. (2019). Factores asociados a la condición física relacionada con la salud en escolares de la ciudad de Dosquebradas Risaralda. Revista Investigación En Salud Universidad de Boyacá, 6(2), 118–136. https://doi.org/10.24267/23897325.343

Patiño Palma, B. E., Tabares Gutierrez, M., Vélez Álvarez, C., & Vidarte Claros, J. A. (2019). Determinantes sociales de la salud, predictores de la condición física en adolescentes escolares. Revista Investigaciones Andina, 21(39), 117–131. https://doi.org/10.33132/01248146.1559

Rodríguez, F., Gualteros, J., Torres, J., Espinosa, L. M., & Ramírez, R. (2015). Asociación entre el desempeño muscular y el bienestar físico en niños y adolescentes de Bogotá, Colombia. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 32(4), 1559–1566. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.4.9310

Ruiz, J., España, V., Castro, J., Artero, E., Ortega, F., García, M., Chillón, P., Girela, M., Mora, J., Suni, J., Sjöstrom, M., & Castillo, M. (2011). Batería ALPHA-Fitness : test de campo para la evaluación de la condición física relacionada con la salud en niños y adolescentes. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 26(6), 1210–1215. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2011.26.6.5270

Ruiz, J. R., Castro-Piñero, J., Artero, E. G., Ortega, F. B., Sjöström, M., Suni, J., & Castillo, M. J. (2009). Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: A systematic review. In British Journal of Sports Medicine (Vol. 43, Issue 12, pp. 909–923). Br J Sports Med. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.056499

Schultz Straatmann, V., & Veiga, G. V. Da. (2015). Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity, and Indicators of Adiposity in Brazilian Adolescents. Human Movement, 16(2), 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1515/humo-2015-0028

Secchi, J., García, G., & Arcuri, C. (2016). Evaluación de la condición física relacionada con la salud en el ámbito escolar: un enfoque práctico para interpretar e informar los resultados. Enfoques, 28(2), 67–87.

Silva, G., Oliveira, N. L., Aires, L., Mota, J., Oliveira, J., & Ribeiro, J. C. (2012). Calculation and validation of models for estimating VO 2max from the 20-m shuttle run test in children and adolescents. Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease, 3(1–2), 145–152. https://doi.org/10.5628/aehd.v3i1-2.20

Silventoinen, K., Magnusson, P. K. E., Tynelius, P., Batty, G. D., & Rasmussen, F. (2009). Association of body size and muscle strength with incidence of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases: A population-based cohort study of one million Swedish men. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(1), 110–118. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyn231

Slaughter, M. H., Lohman, T. G., Boileau, R. A., Horswill, C. A., Stillman, R. J., Van Loan, M. D., & Bemben, D. A. (1988). Skinfold equations for estimations of body fatness in children and youth. Human Biology, 60(5), 709–723.

Stasinopoulos, D. M., & Rigby, R. A. (2007). Generalized additive models for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) in R. Journal of Statistical Software, 23(7), 1–46. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v023.i07

Syddall, H., Cooper, C., Martin, F., Briggs, R., & Sayer, A. A. (2003). Is grip strength a useful single marker of frailty? Age and Ageing, 32(6), 650–656. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afg111

Wilson, A., & Norden, N. (2015). The R Project for Statistical Computing The R Project for Statistical Computing. URL: Http://Www. r-Project. Org/254. https://www.r-project.org/

World Health Organization (WHO). (1995). Physical Status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO expert committee. In Journal of Geriatric Oncology (Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 1–436).

Zaccagni, L., Barbieri, D., & Gualdi-Russo, E. (2014). Body composition and physical activity in Italian university students. Journal of Translational Medicine, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-12-120

Zorrilla-López, C., Ceballos-Santacruz, J. D., Ramírez-Giraldo, C. D., Patiño-Palma, B. E., & Calero-Saa, P. (2020). Factors associated with cardiovascular risk in high school students of a public school in the city of Santiago de Cali, Colombia. Revista Ciencias de La Salud, 18(1), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.12804/revistas.urosario.edu.co/revsalud/a.8741

Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Patiño Palma, B., Ramos Parrací, C., & Calero Saa, P. (2022). Valores normativos de aptitud muscular y cardiorrespiratoria y su relación con variables antropométricas en adolescentes colombianos. Estudio multicéntrico (Normative values of muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness and their relationship with anthropomet. Retos, 43, 818-825. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.88883
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas