Respuesta de cortisol salival y ansiedad precompetitiva en nadadores (Salivary cortisol response and precompetitive anxiety in swimmers)

  • Heriberto Antonio Pineda-Espejel Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Deportes
  • Marina Trejo Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Deportes
  • Karime Berenice García Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Deportes
  • Kristhel Judith Garza Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Deportes
  • Gustavo Vázquez-Jiménez Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina
  • Jesús René Machado-Contreras Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina
  • María Esther Mejía-León Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina
  • Samuel Rodríguez Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Deportes
Palabras clave: deporte, ansiedad cognitiva, ansiedad somática, autoconfianza, respuesta hormonal (sport, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, self-confidence, hormonal response)


El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir los niveles de ansiedad precompetitiva y su relación con la secreción de cortisol medido a nivel salival dentro de una competición oficial de natación. Participaron 19 nadadores de ambos sexos, con una edad media de 12.64 años (DT = 1.65). La medida fisiológica incluyó cortisol salival medido con ELISA. En adición, estados psicológicos precompetitivos fueron medidos con el CSAI-2R. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo en dos tomas, en la Toma 1 se midió el cortisol salival tres semanas antes de una competición (línea base); mientras que en la toma 2 se midió el cortisol salival 16 horas previas a la competición, y se midió la ansiedad precompetitiva. Las dos colectas se realizaron a las 16 horas. Para el análisis de los datos, la muestra se dividió en dos submuestras, una con participantes de 10 y 11 años de edad, y la otra con los de 12 a 16 años de edad. Los resultados del análisis estadístico convencional por hipótesis nula, rechazan diferencias significativas en la concentración de cortisol salival entre las dos tomas, para ambas submuestras. No obstante, el cambio mínimo relevante confirmó un cambio relevante de cortisol salival precompetitivo para la primer submuestra. Además, ambas submuestras presentan baja ansiedad precompetitiva. Las concentraciones de cortisol un día antes de la competición no correlacionaron con la ansiedad (somática y cognitiva). En conclusión, los bajos niveles de cortisol, y altos niveles de autoconfianza sugieren una respuesta psicobiológica adaptativa a la competición. Esto puede contribuir al rendimiento y resultados esperados en la competición. 

Abstract. The objective of this work was to measure the levels of precompetitive anxiety and its relationship with the secretion of cortisol measured at the salivary level within an official swimming competition. 19 swimmers of both sexes participated, with an average age of 12.64 years old (SD = 1.65). The physiological measure included salivary cortisol measured with ELISA. In addition, precompetitive psychological states were measured with the CSAI-2R. Data collection was carried out at two times, in time 1 salivary cortisol was measured three weeks before a competition (baseline); while in time 2 salivary cortisol was measured 16 hours before the competition, and precompetitive anxiety was measured. The two collections were made at 16 hours. For the analysis of the data, the sample was divided into two subsamples, one with participants 10 and 11 years old, and the other with those aged 12 to 16 years. The results of the conventional statistical analysis by null hypothesis, reject significant differences in the concentration of salivary cortisol between the two moments, for both subsamples. However, the relevant minimum change confirmed a significant change of precompetitive salivary cortisol for the first subsample. In addition, both subsamples have low precompetitive anxiety. Cortisol concentrations one day before the competition did not correlate with anxiety (somatic and cognitive). In conclusion, low cortisol levels and high levels of self-confidence suggest an adaptive psychobiological response to competitions. This can contribute to the performance and expected results in the competition.


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Cómo citar
Pineda-Espejel, H., Trejo, M., García, K., Garza, K., Vázquez-Jiménez, G., Machado-Contreras, J., Mejía-León, M., & Rodríguez, S. (2019). Respuesta de cortisol salival y ansiedad precompetitiva en nadadores (Salivary cortisol response and precompetitive anxiety in swimmers). Retos, 38(38), 1-7.
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas