Influencia del tipo de feedback utilizado en el aprendizaje de una tarea motriz de equilibrio (Influence of the type of feedback on balance motor tasks learning)

Adrià Marco Ahulló, Xavier García Massó, Carlos García Osa, Isaac Estevan Torres

Resumen


El feedback que aportan los docentes de Educación Física puede favorecer el aprendizaje de los estudiantes en tareas motrices. La importancia de conocer la influencia del tipo de feedback a utilizar parece clave para programar con éxito las tareas a realizar. Sin embargo, actualmente la literatura existente no es capaz de advertir qué tipo de feedback es el más efectivo para el aprendizaje de una tarea motriz en adolescentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la influencia de tres tipos de feedback terminal-verbal: i) sobre el resultado, ii) sobre el procedimiento o iii) sobre ambos (procedimiento-resultado) en el aprendizaje de una tarea motriz. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 30 alumnos/as de primer ciclo de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria con edades comprendidas entre los 13 y 14 años (divididos aleatoriamente en los 3 grupos). Las mediciones de los datos se realizaron durante el pretest, postest y prueba de retención. Los resultados mostraron que los adolescentes que recibieron feedback sobre el procedimiento, obtuvieron unas puntuaciones más bajas en Raíz Media Cuadrática (p < ,05), lo que se relaciona con un mayor rendimiento en la tarea, que quienes lo recibieron sobre el resultado o ambos. Los hallazgos obtenidos sugieren que, para favorecer el aprendizaje de una tarea motriz de equilibrio, se recomienda que el profesorado de Educación Física aporte feedback terminal–verbal sobre el procedimiento.


Abstract. Depending on the type of feedback provided by physical education teachers, students’ motor learning might be enhanced or not. The importance of understanding the influence of types of feedback seems to be essential to organize any motor learning process appropriately. Currently, it is not clear which type of feedback is the most effective for adolescents’ motor learning. The purpose of this study was to examine students’ balance motor learning according to the type of terminal-verbal feedback provided (i.e., feedback on result, feedback on process, or both). Thirty secondary school students aged between 13 and 14 years old (randomly distributed into 3 groups) participated in the study. Data collection was carried out using a balance motor task involving postural control on an unstable Wii Balance platform. Measurements were conducted at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The results showed that students who received the terminal-verbal feedback on the process presented lower Root Mean Squared (p < ,05), considered as a better performance, than those who received feedback on result or both types of feedback. Accordingly, to favor students’ balance motor learning it is recommended that physical education teachers provide terminal-verbal feedback on process.


Palabras clave


educación física, aprendizaje motor, equilibrio, retroalimentación, adolescencia (physical education, motor learning, balance, feedback, adolescence)

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Referencias


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