Análisis de las relaciones entre la baja competencia motriz y los problemas de atención e hiperactividad en la edad escolar.Analysis of the relationships between low motor competence and attention and hyperactivity problems in school age.


  • Miguel Villa de Gregorio Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte-INEF de Madrid
  • Luis Miguel Ruiz Pérez
  • María Isabel Barriopedro Moro


Palabras clave:

Atención, hiperactividad, competencia motriz, trastorno, escolares


Los Trastornos Evolutivos de la Coordinación (TDC) son una problemática relativamente reciente que afecta en torno a un 5-8% de la población infantil. Afecta a niños que no presentan ningún déficit cognitivo aparente, pero que muestran un desarrollo motor deficiente para su edad, con limitaciones de coordinación y dificultades para la realización de actividades cotidianas. El TDC suele coexistir con otras dificultades. Por ello, en el presente estudio se ha realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica más relevante, que analiza la comorbilidad del TDC con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH). Los resultados muestran que existe una relación entre las dos dificultades entre los escolares estudiados. La importancia de una intervención temprana en niños diagnosticados como TDC+TDAH, se hace patente al analizar las dificultades que entorpecen el desarrollo normal de su vida diaria, lo que puede llegar a provocar problemas colaterales.

Motor Coordination Problems (Developmental Coordination Disorders-DCD) deal with a relatively recent problem that affects around 5-8% of the child population. It affects children who do not present any apparent cognitive deficit, but who show a deficient motor development for their age, with limitations of coordination and difficulties for the accomplishment of daily activities. DCD often coexists with other diseases. Therefore, this study presents a systematic review of the most relevant scientific literature analyzing the comorbidity of these difficulties with the Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity (ADHD). The results have shown that there is a relationship between both types of difficulties among children. The importance of an early intervention in children diagnosed as DCD + ADHD is evident when analyzing the motor and attentional difficulties that hinder the normal development of their daily life, which can be the cause of collateral problems.

Biografía del autor/a

Miguel Villa de Gregorio, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte-INEF de Madrid

Licenciado en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. Doctorando del Departamento de Ciencias Sociales de la Actividad Física, del Deporte y del Ocio. Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte-INEF de Madrid


American Psychiatric Association.(2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition. Arligton, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Arita F. N.(2010). Distúrbios de aprendizagem. In: Rosemberg S. Neuropediatria, Sao Paulo: Sanvier, p. 187-201.

Asonitou, K., Koutsouki, D., Charitou, S. ().Motor skills and cognitive abilities as a precursor of academic performance in children with and without DCD. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, p. 1702-1707.

Barkley, R.A.(1997). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A handbok for diagnosis and treatment. 2nd edition. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Bierderman, J., Faraone, S.V., Mounteaux, M.C., Plumkett, E.A., Gifford, J., & Spencer, T.(2003). Growth deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder revisited: Impact of gender, development, and treatment. Pediatrics, n.111, p. 1010-1016.

Biederrman J, Mick E, Wozniak J, Monuteaux MC, Galdo M, Faraone SV.(2003). Can a subtype of conduct disorder linked to bipolar disorder be identified? Integration of findings from the Massachusetts General Hospital Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Program. Biological Psychiatry Journal. v. 53, n.11, p. 952-60.

Bouffard, M., Watkinson, E.J., Thompson, L.P., Causgrove-Dunn, J.L. y Romanow, S.K.E.(1996). A test of the activity deficit hypothesis with children with movement difficulties. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, n.13, p. 61-73.

Buxbaum LJ, Shaìro A, Coslett HB.(2014). Critical brain regions for tool related and imitative actions: a componential analysis. Brain, n.137, p. 1971-85.

Cairney, J.(2016). Developmental coordination disorder and its consequences. 1st Edition. Toronto: Toronto University Press.

Charach, A., Figueroa, M., Chen, S., Ickowicz, A., y Schadar, R.(2006). Stimulant treatment over 5 years : Effects on growth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, n.45, p. 415-421.

Ciasca, S.M.(2003). Distúrbios e dificultades de aprendizagem: questao de nomenclatura. In: Ciasca SM. Distúrbios de aprendizagem: proposta de avaliacao interdisciplinar. Sao Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo. 19-32.

Crova, C., Marchetti, R., Struzzolino, I., Forte, R., Pesce, C.(2014). Training attention in physical education: effects on typically developing and DCD children.. Procedia –Social and Behavioral Sciences , n.116, p. 1509-1514.

Daseking, M; Petermann, F.; Goldbeck, L.(2011). Effects of Methylphenidate on Intelligence and Attention Components in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, v. 21, n.3.

Dewey, Bonnie, Kaplan, Crawford, Wilson. (2002). Developmental coordination disorder: associated problems in attention, learning and psychosocial adjustment. Human Movement Science v.21, p. 905-918.

Du Toit, Y.; Pienaar, A.(2014). Neuromotor deficits in six-to eight-year old learners with ADHD and DAMP. South African Journal for Research in Sport. Physical Education and Recreation, n. 36, v.3, p. 61-74.

Flapper, BCT; Houwen, S.; Schoemaker, MM.(2014). Fine motor skills and effects of methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, n.48, p.165-169.

Fliers EA, de Hoog ML, Franke B, Faraone SV, Rommelse NN, Buitelaar JK, Nijhuis-van der Sanden MW.(2010). Actual motor performance and self- perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, n. 31, p. 35-40.

Fliers, E, Rommelse, N., Vermeulen, S.H., Altink, M., Buschgens, C.J., Faraone, S.V.,.(2008). Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender. Journal of Neural Transmission., n.115, v.2. p.221-20, 2008.

Fonseca, V.(2008). Da Cognicao, neuropsicología e aprendizagem: abordagem neuropsicológica e psicopedagógica. Petrópolis, RJ: Editora Voces.

Gau, S.S.; Chiang, H.L.(2009). Sleep problems and disorders among adolescents with persistent and subthreshold attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Sleep , n.32, p. 671-679.

Goulardins, J.B., Rigoli, D., Licari, M., Piek, J.P., Hasue, R.H., Oosterlaan, J., Oliveira, J.A.(2015). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology. Behavioral Brain Research-Journal., n. 292, p. 484-492.

Goyen TA, Lui K, Hummell J.(2011). Sensorimotor skills associated with motor dysfunction in children born extremely preterm. Early Human Development- Journal., n. 87, p. 489-93.

Green D, Baird G, Sudgen, D.(2006). A pilot study of psychopathology in developmental coordination disorder. Child Care Health and Development- Journal., n. 32, p.741-50.

Green, Sigafoos, Pituch, Itchon, O'Reilly, Lancioni.(2006). Assessing behavioural flexibility in individuals with developmental disabilities. Focus on autism and other developmental disabilities, v. 21, p. 230-6.

Guardiola, A. Fuchs, F.D., Rotta NT,.(2000). Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in students – comparison between DSM-IV and neurosychological criteria. Arquivos de. Neuropsiquiatria.; n.58, v. 2-8, p.401-7.

Harvey, W. J. & Reid, G.(1999). Motor performance of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A preliminary investigation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, v.14, p.189-202..

Harvey, W. J., Reid, G. Bloom, G.A., Rizenko, N., Mbekou, V., Stepanian, T. & Joober, R.(2009). Physical Activity experiences of boys with and without ADHD. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, n.26, p. 131-150.

Henderson, S.; Sugden, (1992). D. Movement assessment batery for children. London: Psychological Coporation.

Jeyaseelan D, O´Callaghan M, Neulinger K, Shum D, Burns Y.(2006). The association between early minor motor difficulties in extreme low birth weight infants and school age attentional difficulties. Early Hum Dev., v.82, p.249-55.

Jover, M., Schmitz, C., Centelles, L., Chabrol, B., Assainate, C. (2006).Anticipatory postural adjustments in a bimanual load-lifting task in children with developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology., n.52, v.9, p.850-855.

Jucaite, A., Fernell, E., Forssberg, H., Hadders-Algra, M.(2003). Decient coordination associated postural adjustments during a lifting task in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology., n. 45, v.11, p.731-742.

Kaplan, B.J., Wilson. B.N., Dewey, D., & Crawford, S.G. (1998). DCD may not be a discrete disorder. Human Movement Science. v.17, p. 471-490.
Karande S, Kulkarmi M.(2005). Poor School Performance. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, n.72, v.11, p. 961-7.

Kokstejn, J.; Psotta, R.; Frybort, P.(2012). Relationships between levels of motor coordination, attention and physical activity in children: the mediation model. In: Acta Iniv. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. v. 42, n.4.

Kooistra L, Ramage B, Crawford S, Cantell M, Wormsbecker S, Gibbard B, Kaplan BJ.(2009). Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits? Human Movement Science., v 28, p.529-542.

Kopp S, Bekung E, Gillberg C. (2010).Developmental coordination Disorder and other motor control problems in girls with autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilitues- Journal., v.31, p.350-361.

Langevin, L.M., Macmaster, F.P., Crawford, S., Lebel, C., Dewey, D. (2014).Common white matter microstructure alterations in pediatric motor and attention disorders. Journal of Pediatrics., v.164, n.5, p.1157-1164.
Lewis, M., Vance, A., Maruff, P., Wilson, P., Cairney, S. (2008). Differences in motor imagery between children with developmental coordination disorder with and without the combined type of ADHD. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology., v.50, n.8, p. 608-610.

Li, K., Su, W., Fu, H., Pickett, K.(2015). Kinesthetic deficit in children with developmental coordination disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities-Journal. v.38, p.125-133.

Loh, P.R., Piek, J.P., Barrett, N.C.(2011). Comorbid ADHD and DCD: Examining cognitive functions using WISC-IV. Research in Developmental Disabilities-Journal. v.32, n.4, p.1260-1269.

Martin , N.C., Piek, J.P., Hay, D.(2006). DCD and ADHD: a genetic study of their shared aetiology. Human Movement Science. v.25, p.110-124.

McQuillan, V. (2015).Stability and change over time in children with movement dificulties. Hillary Place Papers. Leeds, 2nd edition, January.

McLeod, K.R. Langevin, L.M.L., Goodyear, B.G.B., Dewey, D. (2014). Functional conectivity of neural motor networks is disrupted in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuroimage Clinical Journal., v.4, p.566-575.

Miyahara, M., Mobs, I., & Doll-Tepper, G.(1995).In:International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity: Quality of Life Through Adapted Physical Activity, A Lifespan Concept, 10, Subtypes of clinically identified children with hyperkinetic syndrome based upon perceptual motor function and classroom behaviors. Oslo: Ham Trykk A/S (MS), p.278-286).

Montañes-Rada, F.; Gangoso-Fermoso, A.B., & Martínez-Granero, M.A.(2009). Drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rev. Neurol, v.48, n. 9, p.469-81.

Peters JM, Barnett AL, Henderson SE.(2001). Clumsiness, dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder: how do health and educational professionals in the UK define the terms?. Child: Care Health and Development. v.27, p.399-412.

Piek, J.P., Dawson, L. Smith, L.M., Gasson, N. (2008). The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor cognitive ability. Human Movement Science v.27, n.5, p. 668-681.

Piek JP, Dyck MJ, Nieman A, Anderson M, Hay D, Smith LM, McCoy M, Hallmayer J.(2004). The relationship between motor coordination, executive functioning and attention in school aged children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsycholy.v.19,n.8,p.1063-76, December.

Piek, J.P., Pitcher, T.M., Hay, D.A.,(1999). Motor coordination and kinaesthesis in boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. v.41, n.3, p.159-165.

Piek, J.P.; Rigoli, D. (2016). Psychosocial and Behavioral difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder. En J. Cairney (Ed). Developmental coordination disorder and its consequences..Toronto: Toronto University Press. 2016, p.108-137

Pitcher TM, Piek JP, Hay DA.(2003). Fine and gross motor ability in males with ADHD. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology v.45, p. 525-535.

Pliszka SR, Glahn DC, Semrud-Clikeman M, Franklin C, Perez R 3rd, Xiong J, Liotti M.(2006). Neuroimaging of inhibitory control areas in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treatment naïve or in long term treatment. The American Journal of Psychiatry. v.163, n.6, p.1052-60, June.

Pliszka, S.R., McCraken, J.T., y Maas, J.W.(1996). Catecholamines in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Current perspectives. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, v.35, p.264-272.

Pontifex, M.B, Saliba, B.J., Raine, L.B., Piccchietti, D.L., & Hilman, C.H.(2012). Exercise improves behavioral, neurocognitive, and scholastic performance in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Pediatrics, v.3476, n.12, p.994-8.

Poulton , A.(2005). Growth on stimulant medication: clarifying the confusión: a review. Archives of Disease in Childhood, v.90, p.801-806.
Rohde, L.A., & Halpern, R.(2004). Trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad: Actualización. Revista de Pediatria, v.80, p.61-70.

Rotta, NT; Ohlweiler, L; Riesgo, RS.(2006). Transtornos da aprendizagem: abordagem neurobiológica e multidisciplinar. Armed: Porto Alegre.

Ruiz, LM.(2005). Moverse con dificultad en la escuela. Introducción a los problemas evolutivos de coordinación motriz en la edad escolar. Wanceulen, Editorial Deportiva, S.L..

Ruiz, L.M., Mata, E., Moreno, J. A.(2007). Los problemas evolutivos de coordinación motriz y su tratamiento en edad escolar: estado de la cuestión. European Journal of Human Movement. v.18, p.1-17.

Ruiz, L. M., Ruiz, A. y Linaza J.L. (2016). Movimiento y lenguaje. Análisis de las relaciones entre el desarrollo motor y el lenguaje en la infancia.
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, v.46, p.382-398.

Salamanca Duque, L.M.; Aristizábal Naranjo, M.M.; Castro Castro, A.L.; Calle Jaramillo, G.A.(2016). Asociación de las características de trastorno del desarrollo de la coordinación con síntomas de trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad en niños de la ciudad de Manizales. Revista Colombiana psiquiatría. v.45, n.3, p.156-161.

Sergeant JA, Geurts H, Oosterlaan J.(2002). How specific is a deficit of executive functioning for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Behavioural Brain Research-Journal. v.130, n.1-2, p.3-28, March.

Skirbekk B, Hansen BH, Oerbeck B, Wentzel-Larsen T, Kristensen H.(2012). Motor impairment in children with anxiety disorders. Psychiatry Research-Journal, v.198, p.135-139.

Smith, A., Hoza, B., Linnea, K., McQuade, J., Tomb, M., Vaughn, A., Shoulberg, E., & Hook, H.(2013). Pilot Physical Activity Intervetion Reduces Severity of ADHD Symptoms in Young Children. Journal of Attention Disorders, v.17, n.1, p.70-80.

Spencer TJ, Faraone SV, Michelson D, Adler LA, Reimherr FW, Glatt SJ, Biederman J.(2006). Atomoxetine and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the effects of comorbidity. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. v.67, n.3, p.415-20, March.

Sund AM, Zeiner P. (2002).Does extended medication with amphetamine or methylphenidate reduce growth in hyperactive children? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. v.56, n.1, p.53-7.

Swanson, J.M., Elliott, G.R., Greenhill, L.L., Wigal, T., Arnold, L.E., Vitiello, B. Et al., (2007). Effects of stimulant medication on growth rates across 3 years in the MTA follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v.46, p.1015-1027.

Swanson JM, Kinsbourne M, Nigg J, Lanphear B, Stefanatos GA, Volkow N, Taylor E, Casey BJ, Castellanos FX, Wadhwa PD. (2007). Etiologic subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brain imaging, molecular genetic and environmental factors and the dopamine hypothesis. Neuropsychol Review. v.17, n.1, p. 39-59.

Valdizán, J.R. e Izaguerri-Gracia, A.C.(2009). Trastorno por Déficit de atención/hiperactividad en adultos. Revista de Neurología, v.48 (Supl. 2), p.95-99.

Visser, J.,(2003). Developmental coordination disorder: a review of research on subtypes and comorbidities. Human Movement Science, v.22, n.4-5, p.479-493.

Wang HY, Huang TH, Lo SK.(2011). Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Science v.27 p.446-452.

Watemberg N, Waiserberg N, Zuk L, Lerman-Sagie T.(2007). Developmental Coordination Disorder in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervetion. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, v. 49, p.920-925.

Williams, J., Omizzolo, C., Galea, MP., Vance, A.(2012). Motor imagery skills of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder. Human Movement Science., DOI S0167-9457(12)00106-6.




Cómo citar

Villa de Gregorio, M., Ruiz Pérez, L. M., & Barriopedro Moro, M. I. (2019). Análisis de las relaciones entre la baja competencia motriz y los problemas de atención e hiperactividad en la edad escolar.Analysis of the relationships between low motor competence and attention and hyperactivity problems in school age. Retos, 36, 625–632.



Revisiones teóricas