Pedagogía no lineal como método de enseñanza de los comportamientos tácticos en los deportes de equipo, aplicación al rugby (Non-linear pedagogy as a method of teaching tactical behaviors in team sports, rugby application)

Josep Cantos, Francisco J. Moreno

Resumen


Desde la pedagogía no lineal se entiende al sujeto como un sistema complejo en continua interacción. La interacción entre los distintos elementos del sistema y el entorno provoca la emergencia de nuevos patrones de comportamiento. Si se introduce una variable externa que altera el equilibrio del sistema, éste adopta un nuevo estado, y esta variable externa se conoce como constreñimiento. Mediante la manipulación de constreñimientos podemos favorecer la aparición de un comportamiento táctico deseado. A la hora de diseñar ejercicios desde esta perspectiva debemos tener en cuenta cuatro principios pedagógicos: complejidad táctica, representatividad de la tarea, exageración y muestreo. En este trabajo se revisan los estudios que abordan el comportamiento táctico desde la pedagogía no lineal, y se discuten los procedimientos para el diseño de ejercicios para el análisis desde esta perspectiva. A partir de los datos mostrados en este estudio se concluye que la pedagogía no lineal puede ser una herramienta útil para el diseño de ejercicios de mejora de los comportamientos tácticos en deportes colectivos.

AbstractFrom non-linear pedagogy the athlete is understood as a complex system in continuous interaction. The interaction between the different elements of the system and the environment causes the emergence of new patterns of behavior. If an external variable is introduced that alters the equilibrium of the system, it adopts a new state, and this external variable is known as constraint. By manipulating constraints, we can favor the appearance of a desired tactical behavior. When designing exercises from this perspective we must consider four pedagogical principles: tactical complexity, task representativeness, exaggeration and sampling. In this paper we review the studies that address tactical behavior from nonlinear pedagogy and discuss the procedures for designing exercises for analysis from this perspective. From the data shown in this study it is concluded that non-linear pedagogy can be a useful tool for the design of exercises to improve tactical behaviors in collective sports.

 


Palabras clave


Constreñimiento, pedagogía no lineal, rugby, comportamiento táctico, emergencia (Constraint, non-linear pedagogy, rugby, tactical behavior, emergence)

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Araújo, D., Passos, P., Esteves, P., Duarte, R., Lopes, J., Hristovski, R., & Davids, K. (2015). The micro-macro link in understanding sport tactical behaviours: Integrating information and action at different levels of system analysis in sport. Movement & Sport Sciences, (3), 53-63.

Araújo, D., Silva, P., & Davids, K. (2015). Capturing group tactical behaviors in expert team players. In D. Farrow (Ed.) Rotledge Handbook of Sport Expertise: Routledge.

Bourbousson, J., Seve, C., & McGarry, T. (2010). Space–time coordination dynamics in basketball: Part 1. Intra-and inter-couplings among player dyads. Journal of sports sciences, 28(3), 339-347.

Bourbousson, J., Seve, C., & McGarry, T. (2010). Space–time coordination dynamics in basketball: Part 2. The interaction between the two teams. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(3), 349-358.

Bourbousson, J., Deschamps, T., & Travassos, B. (2014). From players to teams: towards a multi-level approach of game constraints in team sports. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(6), 1393-1406.

Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Hristovski, R., Araújo, D., & Passos, P. (2011). Nonlinear pedagogy: Learning design for self-organizing neurobiological systems. New Ideas in Psychology, 29(2), 189-200.

Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., & Renshaw, I. (2015). Relations between nonlinear pedagogy and games-based teaching approaches. In K. Davids. et al. (Eds.) Nonlinear pedagogy in skill acquisition: An introduction (pp. 152-165). Routledge.

Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., & Renshaw, I. (2015). Why do we what we do?. In K. Davids et al. (Eds.) Nonlinear pedagogy in skill acquisition: An introduction (pp. 166-184). Routledge.

Correia, V., Araujo, D., Craig, C., & Passos, P. (2011). Prospective information for pass decisional behavior in rugby union. Human Movement Science, 30(5), 984-997.

Correia, V., Araújo, D., Duarte, R., Travassos, B., Passos, P., & Davids, K. (2012). Changes in practice task constraints shape decision-making behaviours of team games players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15(3), 244-249.

Davids, K., Button, C., Araújo, D., Renshaw, I., & Hristovski, R. (2006). Movement models from sports provide representative task constraints for studying adaptive behavior in human movement systems. Adaptive behavior, 14(1), 73-95.

Davids, K., Araújo, D., Hristovski, R., Passos, P., & Chow, J. Y. (2012). Ecological dynamics and motor learning design in sport. Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory & practice, 112-130.

del Villar Álvarez, F., & González, L. G. (2014). La manipulación de los constreñimientos en deportes de equipo. El entrenamiento táctico y decisional en el deporte (pp. 195-208).

del Villar Álvarez, F., & González, L. G. (2014). La toma de decisiones en el deporte bajo la perspectiva del sistema individuo-entorno. El entrenamiento táctico y decisional en el deporte (pp. 43-58).

Diniz, A., Barreiros, J., & Passos, P. (2014). To Pass or Not to Pass: A Mathematical Model for Competitive Interactions in Rugby Union. Journal of motor behavior, 46(5), 293-302.

Duarte, R., Araújo, D., Correia, V., & Davids, K. (2012). Sports teams as superorganisms. Sports medicine, 42(8), 633-642.

Esteves, P. T., Araújo, D., Davids, K., Vilar, L., Travassos, B., & Esteves, C. (2012). Interpersonal dynamics and relative positioning to scoring target of performers in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases of team sports. Journal of sports sciences, 30(12), 1285-1293.

Headrick, J., Davids, K., Renshaw, I., Araújo, D., Passos, P., & Fernandes, O. (2012). Proximity-to-goal as a constraint on patterns of behaviour in attacker–defender dyads in team games. Journal of sports sciences, 30(3), 247-253.

Hristovski, R., Davids, K., Araujo, D., & Passos, P. (2011). Constraints-induced emergence of functional novelty in complex neurobiological systems: a basis for creativity in sport. Nonlinear Dynamics-Psychology and Life Sciences, 15(2), 175.

Passos, P., Araújo, D., Davids, K., Gouveia, L., Milho, J., & Serpa, S. (2008). Information-governing dynamics of attacker–defender interactions in youth rugby union. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(13), 1421-1429.

Passos, P., Araújo, D., Davids, K., & Shuttleworth, R. (2008). Manipulating constraints to train decision making in rugby union. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 3(1), 125-140.

Passos, P., Araujo, D., Davids, K. W., Gouveia, L., Milho, J., & Serpa, S. (2009). Interpersonal coordination tendencies, decision-making and information governing dynamics in rugby union. In D. Araujo et al. (Eds) Perspectives on Cognition and Action in Sport (pp. 27-42). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Passos, P., Araújo, D., & Davids, K. (2013). Self-organization processes in field-invasion team sports. Sports Medicine, 43(1), 1-7.

Passos, P. L., & Davids, K. (2015). Learning design to facilitate interactive behaviours in Team Sports. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 11(39), 18-32.

Passos, P., Araújo, D., & Davids, K. (2016). Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance. Frontiers in psychology, 7.

Riley, M. A., Richardson, M., Shockley, K., & Ramenzoni, V. C. (2011). Interpersonal synergies. Frontiers in psychology, 2, 38.

Rodrigues, M., & Passos, P. (2013). Patterns of Interpersonal Coordination in Rugby Union: Analysis of Collective Behaviours in a Match Situation. Advances in Physical Education, 3(04), 209.

Sampaio, J., & Maçãs, V. (2012). Measuring tactical behaviour in football. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(05), 395-401.

Serra-Olivares, J., González-Víllora, S., García-López, L. M., & Araújo, D. (2015). Game-based approaches’ pedagogical principles: exploring task constraints in youth soccer. Journal of human kinetics, 46(1), 251-261.

Silva, P., Aguiar, P., Duarte, R., Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Garganta, J. (2014). Effects of pitch size and skill level on tactical behaviours of Association Football players during small-sided and conditioned games. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(5), 993-1006.

Silva, P., Duarte, R., Sampaio, J., Aguiar, P., Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Garganta, J. (2014). Field dimension and skill level constrain team tactical behaviours in small-sided and conditioned games in football. Journal of sports sciences, 32(20), 1888-1896.

Silva, P., Esteves, P., Correia, V., Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Garganta, J. (2015). Effects of manipulations of player numbers vs. field dimensions on inter-individual coordination during small-sided games in youth football. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15(2), 641-659.

Silva, P., Duarte, R., Esteves, P., Travassos, B., & Vilar, L. (2016). Application of entropy measures to analysis of performance in team sports. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 16(2), 753-768.

Silva, P., Vilar, L., Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Garganta, J. (2016). Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 191.

Travassos, B., Araújo, D., Duarte, R., & McGarry, T. (2012). Spatiotemporal coordination behaviors in futsal (indoor football) are guided by informational game constraints. Human Movement Science, 31(4), 932-945.

Vilar, L., Araújo, D., Davids, K., & Button, C. (2012). The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports. Sports Medicine, 42(1), 1-10.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.