O ensino da tática e da técnica no futebol: concepção de treinadores das categorias de base (La enseñanza de táctica y técnica en el fútbol: conocimientos de entrenadores de categorías de formación) (Teaching tactics and technique in football: conceptions

Otávio Bettega, Alcides Scaglia, Juarez Nascimento, Sérgio Ibáñez, Larissa Galatti

Resumen


O desenvolvimento de conteúdos tático-técnicos no processo de ensino-treino do futebol é atribuição fundamental do treinador, buscando coordenar e orientar possíveis ações de jogo dos atletas. Assim, o artigo objetiva analisar a concepção de treinadores das categorias de base de um clube de elite do futebol brasileiro sobre aspectos técnicos e táticos do plano, do treino e do jogo. Participaram de entrevista semiestruturada oito treinadores do sub-10 ao sub-17, sendo o tratamento das informações realizado por meio da análise de conteúdo. Nas temáticas de plano e treino, sete treinadores investigados visualizam e desenvolvem a técnica de forma descontextualizada da tática. Contraditoriamente, na temática referente ao jogo os treinadores avaliam o contexto tático do jogo, não atribuindo relevância para o aspecto técnico. Portanto, torna-se relevante o treinador ter coerência e compreender o processo de planejar, treinar e jogar de forma complementar, contextualizando o desenvolvimento da técnica e da tática.


Resumen. El desarrollo de los contenidos táctico-técnicos en el proceso de enseñanza-entrenamiento del fútbol configura tarea central del entrenador, objetivando coordinar y orientar posibles acciones de juego de sus deportistas. Como un paisaje complejo que incluye constantemente el afrontamiento a los problemas tácticos-técnicos. En este sentido, se hace necesario que el entrenador comprenda estos problemas para que pueda guiar acciones tomadas por los jugadores. Así, esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar la concepción de los entrenadores de las categorías inferiores de un club de elite del fútbol brasileño en los aspectos técnicos y tácticos del plan, el entrenamiento y el partido. Participaron de una entrevista semiestructura ocho entrenadores (del sub-10 al sub-17), y el tratamiento de datos realizados por el análisis de contenido. En las categorías plan y entrenamiento predominó la percepción y enseñanza de la técnica descontextualizada de la táctica. Contradictoriamente, en la categoría juego los entrenadores evalúan el contexto táctico del juego, sin valorar al aspecto técnico. Por lo tanto, se hace importante para el entrenador tener consistencia y comprender el proceso de planificación, entrenamiento y el juego de una manera complementaria, contextualizando el desarrollo de la técnica y la táctica. 


Abstract. Coaching tactical-technical competences is a central task for soccer coaches, as it aims to better organize athletes’ actions during games. In this sense, it becomes necessary for coaches to understand such problems, to stimulate players’ better decision-making processes. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze youth category soccer coaches´ conceptions about tactical and technical issues in planning, training, and competition, in an elite Brazilian soccer club. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight coaches (from U-10 to U-17); data analysis was performed through content analysis. In planning and training topics, most of the coaches view and develop technical training separated form tactical aspects. Contradictorily, in the theme referring to competition coaches evaluated the tactical context of games, whereas they considered technical aspects as non-relevant. Therefore, being coherent and understanding the processes of planning, coaching and playing in a complementary way, contextualizing the development of tactical and technical, becomes essential for any youth category coach.


Palabras clave


Futebol; Treinador; Categorias de Base; Formação de jogadores; Tática e Técnica (Fútbol; Entrenador; Categorías de Formación; Formación de Jugadores; Táctica y Técnica) (Soccer; Coach; Youth Sport; Players Education; Tactical and Technical)

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