Who are the losers of the economic crisis? Explaining the vote for rightwing populist parties in Europe after the Great Recession

José Rama Caamaño, Guillermo Cordero

Resumen


Los partidos populistas de derecha han obtenido unos resultados electorales sin precedentes durante la Gran Recesión en Europa. Mientras que algunos autores han adoptado una aproximación a nivel agregado para explicar su éxito, subrayando la importancia del contexto de crisis, otros se han centrado en explicaciones a nivel micro para analizar cómo los «perdedores de la globalización» (los mayores, con menor nivel educativo, y de clase social baja) comprenden la principal base electoral de estos partidos. Sin embargo, el éxito de estas formaciones ha sido mayor en los países menos afectados por la crisis y, en ciertos contextos, los llamados “perdedores” de la globalización no han sido la base electoral de estas formaciones. Utilizando datos individuales de doce países de Europa Occidental, provenientes de la base de datos European Election Studies (2014), en este trabajo demostramos que la combinación de estos dos conjuntos de explicaciones (a nivel macro y micro) es necesaria no solo por razones empíricas, sino también conceptuales, para poder entender el fenómeno. Mientras que el perfil general de esta familia de votantes tiende a ser de mayor edad, con menor nivel educativo y perteneciente a clases sociales bajas, en los países más afectados por la crisis los electores de los partidos populistas de derechas tienden a ser más jóvenes y con un nivel educativo más alto.

Palabras clave


Gran Recesión, inmigración, populismo, partidos populistas de derecha, comportamiento electoral.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.48.01

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