Leaving care in Quebec: The EDJeP Longitudinal Study

Authors

  • Martin Goyette École nationale d'administration publique
  • Alexandre Blanchet École nationale d'administration publique

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7179/PSRI_2022.40.01

Keywords:

Transition to adulthood Youth in care, Education, residential stability, Homelessness, Longitudinal data

Abstract

Abstract

This article reports results from the first longitudinal and representative study of a cohort of youth leaving care in Quebec (EDJeP study). Focusing on education and residential stability, we show that youths from youth protection services accumulate important vulnerabilities that make their transition out of youth protection services very challenging. In particular, compared to their peers in the general population, youth leaving care have significant educational delays that complicate their integration into the labor market. Our data suggest that a system that better encourages school perseverance and success would limit these academic delays and promote graduation. We also find that nearly half of the youths from the protection system experienced residential instability in the months following their release from placement and that 20% of them experienced at least one episode of homelessness.  These last elements clearly show the extent of the vulnerability of youth leaving the protection system. We suggest some areas of reflection to improve this situation.

Author Biographies

Martin Goyette, École nationale d'administration publique

Martin Goyette is a full professor at the National School of Public Administration (ENAP), holder of the The Research Chair in evaluating public actions related to young people and vulnerable populations (CRÉVAJ) as well as holder of the Health & Well-being component of the Réseau de recherche sur la jeunesse Chair (CRJ-SBE). Martin Goyette is currently directing the Longitudinal study on the future of foster youth in Quebec and France. His work focuses on the education of foster young, the participation of young people in the organization and delivery of services as well as the analysis of forms of public intervention, the analysis of social networks and the intersectoral youth action through transitions to adult life.

Alexandre Blanchet, École nationale d'administration publique

ALEXANDRE BLANCHET leads the quantitative team at CREVAJ (ENAP), and public opinion research at EMDH Chair (Téluq). He specializes in public opinion analysis, behavioral and decision psychology, and data science methods.

References

Allegre, G. (2011). La jeunesse, génération sacrifiée? OFCE Les notes du blog, 5(1), 1-12. Retrieved from https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01024485

Anderson, I. (2011). Evidence, policy and guidance for practice: a critical reflection on the case of social housing landlords and antisocial behaviour in Scotland. Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, 7(1), 41–58. https://doi.org/10.1332/174426411X552990

Association des centres jeunesse du Québec. (2002). Brief on Bill 112, An Act to combat poverty and social exclusion presented to the parliamentary committee on Social Affairs. 36th parl., 2nd Session.

Berlin, M., Vinnerljung, B., & Hjern, A. (2011). School performance in primary school and psychosocial problems in young adulthood among care leavers from long term foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2489-2497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.024

Bidart, C. (2006). Devenir adulte aujourd’hui. Paris, France : L’Harmattan.

Bonvalet, C. & Lelièvre, E. (2012). De la famille à l’entourage : L’enquête biographies et entourage. Paris, France : INED.

Centre jeunesse de Québec. (2000). Familles d’accueil et intervention jeunesse : Analyse de la politique de placement en ressource de type familial (Report). Beauport, Canada : IUJD. Retrieved from http://www.santecom.qc.ca/BibliothequeVirtuelle/MSSS/292115143X.pdf

Collins, M. E. (2001). Transition to Adulthood for Vulnerable Youths: A Review of Research and Implications for Policy. Social Service Review, 75(2), 271-291. https://doi.org/10.1086/322209

Contandriopoulos, D., Lemire, M., Denis, J.-L., & Tremblay, E. (2010). Knowledge exchange processes in organizations and policy arenas: a narrative systematic review of the literature. The Milbank Quarterly, 88(4), 444–483. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2010.00608.x

Courtney, M. (2019). The benefits of extending state care to young adults: Evidence from the united states of America, In V. Mann Feder & M. Goyette (Eds.), Leaving care and the transition to adulthood: International contributions to theory, research and practice (pp. 131-147). Oxford press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190630485.001.0001

Courtney, M. (2019). The benefits of extending state care to young adults: Evidence from the united states of America, In V. Mann Feder & M. Goyette (Eds.), Leaving care and the transition to adulthood: International contributions to theory, research and practice (pp. 131-147). New-York, USA: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190630485.001.0001

Courtney, M. E., Lee, J., & Perez, A. (2011). Receipt of help acquiring life skills and predictors of help receipt among current and former foster youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2442-2451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.026

Courtney, M. E., Valentine, E. J. & Skemer, M. (2019). Experimental evaluation of transitional living services for system-involved youth: Implications for policy and practice. Children and Youth Services Review, 96, 396-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.11.031

Crozier, M., & Friedberg, E. (1977). L’acteur et le système. Les contraintes de l’action collective. Paris, France : Seuil.

Daining, C., & DePanfilis, D. (2007). Resilience of youth in transition from out-of-home care to adulthood. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(9), 1158-1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.04.006

Dietrich-Ragon P. (2020) Quitter l’Aide sociale à l’enfance. De l’hébergement institutionnel aux premiers pas sur le marché immobilier, Population, 75 (4), 527-560. https://doi.org/10.3917/popu.2004.0527

Dumaret, A. C., Coppel-Batsch, M., & Couraud, S. (1997). Adult outcome of children reared for long-term periods in foster families. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(10), 911-927. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(97)00053-7

Dumaret, A.-C., Mackiewicz, M.-P., & Bittencourt-Ribeiro, F. (2007). Évaluation en protection de l’enfance : croiser les points de vue des acteurs dans une approche pluridisciplinaire. Sociétés et jeunesses en difficulté. Revue pluridisciplinaire de recherche, n°3. Retrieved from https://journals.openedition.org/sejed/350?lang=fr

Duncheon, J., et Relles, S. (2019). Brokering College Opportunity for First-Generation Youth: The Role of the Urban High School. American Educational Research Journal, 56(1), 146-177. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831218788335

Ertul, S., Melchior, J-P., & Warin, P. (2012). Les parcours sociaux à l’épreuve des politiques publiques. Rennes, France : PUR.

Fransson, E., & Storø, J. (2011). Dealing with the Past in the Transition from Care. A post-structural analysis of young people’s accounts. Retrieved from https://openarchive.usn.no/usn-xmlui/handle/11250/2438378

Frechon, I. (2003). Insertion sociale et familiale de jeunes femmes anciennement placées en foyer socio-éducatif (Doctoral dissertation, Paris 10, France). Retrieved from http://www.theses.fr/2003PA100047

Frechon, I. (2005). Les stratégies féminines d’entrée dans la vie adulte. In E. Callu, J.-P. Jurmand & A. d. Vulbeau (Eds.), La place des jeunes dans la cité. Tome 2 – Espaces de rue, espaces de parole (pp. 215-232). Paris, France : L’Harmattan.

Frechon, I. (2013). Processus d’entrée et de sortie d’une situation de vulnérabilité. In M. Bresson, V. Geronimi & N. Pottier (Eds.), La vulnérabilité : Questions de recherches en Sciences sociales (pp. 107-122). Fribourg, Suisse : Academic Press Fribourg. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00989322

Furstenberg, F. (2006). Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. Temple Law Review, 79(2), 325-335.

Giddens, A. (1987). La constitution de la société. Paris, France : PUF.

Goyette, M. (2003). Portrait des interventions visant la préparation à la vie autonome et l’insertion socioprofessionnelle pour les jeunes des centres jeunesse du Québec. Montréal, Canada : ACJQ.

Goyette, M. (2007b). Promoting autonomous functioning among youth in care: A program evaluation. New Directions for Youth Development, 2007(113), 89105. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.203

Goyette, M. (2011). Dynamiques relationnelles dans les transitions à la vie adulte de jeunes en difficulté. In Goyette, M., et al., (Eds.), Les transitions à la vie adulte des jeunes en difficulté : concepts, figures et pratiques. Montréal, Canada : Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Goyette, M. (2019). Afterword. Leaving Care and the Transition to Adulthood. In V. Mann Feder & M. Goyette (Eds.), Leaving care and the transition to adulthood: International contributions to theory, research and practice (pp. 329- 346). New York, USA: Oxford university press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190630485.001.0001

Goyette, M., & Sasseville, M. (2012). Programmes et services de soutien à la transition vers la vie adulte destinés aux jeunes ayant connu un placement en centre jeunesse au Québec. Montréal, Canada : CWLC.

Goyette, M., & Turcotte, D. (2004). La transition vers la vie adulte des jeunes qui ont vécu un placement : un défi pour les organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Service social, 51(1), 3044. https://doi.org/10.7202/012710ar

Goyette, M., Bellot, C., Blanchet, A., & Silva-Ramirez, R. (2019). Stabilité résidentielle, instabilité résidentielle et itinérance des jeunes quittant un placement substitut pour la transition à la vie adulte (Research Report). Montréal, Québec : ENAP. Retrieved from : http://edjep.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Consultez-le-rapport-en-cliquant-ici.pdf

Goyette, M., Bellot, C., Panet, & Raymond, J. (2006). Le projet Solidarité jeunesse. Dynamiques partenariales et insertion des jeunes en difficulté. Montréal, Canada : Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Goyette, M., Blanchet, A., Esposito, T., & Delaye, A. (2021). The Role of Placement Instability on Employment and Educational Outcomes Among Adolescents Leaving Care. Children and Youth Services Review, 131, 106264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106264

Goyette, M., Chénier, G., Royer, M.-N., & Noël, V. (2007a). Le soutien au passage à la vie adulte des jeunes recevant des services des centres jeunesse. Éducation et francophonie, 35(1), 95119. https://doi.org/10.7202/1077957ar

Goyette, M., Pontbriand, A., & Bellot, C. (2011). Les transitions à la vie adulte des jeunes en difficulté : concepts, figures et pratiques. Montréal, Canada : Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Grant, C., Lach, A., Torrans, M., & Dudding, P. (2012). Transitioning Young People out of Care in Canadian Jurisdictions: A Review of the Issues. Ottawa, Canada : CWLC.

Jack, S., Dobbins, M., Tonmyr, L., Dudding, P., Brooks, S., & Kennedy, B. (2010). Research evidence utilization in policy development by child welfare administrators. Child Welfare, 89(4), 83–100.

Jahnukainen, M. (2007). High-risk youth transitions to adulthood: A longitudinal view of youth leaving the residential education in Finland. Children and Youth Services Review, 29, 637-654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.01.009

Johansson, S. (2010). Implementing evidence-based practices and programmes in the human services: lessons from research in public administration. European Journal of Social Work, 13(1), 109–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691450903135691

Kim, Y., Ju, E., Rosenberg, R. & Farmer, E. M. Z. (2019). Estimating the effects of independent living services on educational attainment and employment of foster care youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 96, 294-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.11.048

Kufeldt, K. (2003). Graduates of Guardianship Care: Outcomes. In K., Kufeldt, & B. McKenzie (Eds.), Early Adulthood Child Welfare: Connecting Reasearch, Policy and Practice (pp. 203-216). Waterloo, Canada : Wilfrid Laurier Uni-versity Press.

Laflamme-Cusson, S., & Manseau, H. (1979). Après le centre d’accueil. Montréal, Canada : BCJ.

Lanctôt, N. (2006). Les adolescentes prises en charge par le centre jeunesse: Que deviennent-elles au tournant de la vingtaine? Défi jeunesse, 12(2), 3-7. Retrieved from https://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3481105.

Leblanc, M. (1985). Les mesures pour jeunes délinquants. In D. Szabo & M. Leblanc (Eds.), La criminologie empirique au Québec. Phénomènes criminels et justice pénale (pp. 353-372). Montréal, Canada : Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal.

Lee, J. S. & Ballew, K. M. (2018). Independent living services, adjudication status, and the social exclusion of foster youth aging out of care in the United States. Journal of Youth Studies, 21(7), 940-957. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2018.1435854

Lipsky, M. (2010). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service. New-York, USA: Russell Sage Foundation.

Mann-Feder, V. R. (2007). New directions for youth development. Transition or eviction. Youth exiting care for independent living. New Directions for Youth Development, 113, 1-8.

Mann-Feder, V. R., & Goyette, M. (Éds.). (2019). Leaving Care and the Transition to Adulthood: International Contributions to Theory, Research, and Practice. New-York, USA: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190630485.001.0001

Mann-Feder, V., & White, T. (1999). Investing in Terminaison: Intervening with youth in the transition to independent living. Journal of Child and Youth Care, 13(1), 87-93.

Marier, B. & Robert, A-M. (2004). Les jeunes en centres jeunesse prennent la parole. Québec, Canada : Conseil permanent de la jeunesse. Retrieved from https://numerique.banq.qc.ca/patrimoine/details/52327/13340?docpos=7

Marier, B. (2004). Les jeunes en centres jeunesse prennent la parole (Report). Québec, Canada : Conseil permanent de la jeunesse. Retrieved from http://bel.uqtr.ca/id/eprint/1394/1/6-19-867-20060217-1.pdf

Marion, E. & Mann-Feder, V. (2020). Supporting the educational attainment of youth in residential care: From issues to controversies. Children and Youth Services Review(113). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104969

Martuccelli, D. (2002). Grammaire de l’individu. Paris, France : Éditions Gallimard.

Martuccelli, D. (2010). La société singulariste. Paris, France : Armand Colin.

Munro, E. R., Pinkerton, J., Mendes, P., Hyde-Dryden, G., Herczog, M., & Benbenishty, R. (2011). The contribution of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child to understanding and promoting the interests of young people making the transition from care to adulthood. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2417-2423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.025

Payet, J.-P., Giuliani, F., & Laforgue, D. (2008). La voix des acteurs faibles. De l’indignité à la reconnaissance. Rennes, France: Presses universitaires de Rennes.

Pecora, P. J., Williams, J., Kessler, R. C., Hiripi, E., O’Brien, K., Emerson, J., Herrick, M. A., & Torres, D. (2006). Assessing the educational achievements of adults who were formerly placed in family foster care. Child & Family Social Work, 11(3), 220-231. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2006.00429.x

Renault, E. (2004). L’expérience de l’injustice: reconnaissance clinique de l’injustice. Paris, France : La Découverte.

Rutman, D., Hubberstey, C., Feduniw, A., & Brown, E. (2006). When Youth Age Out of Care (Research Initiatives for Social Change unit bulletin No. 2). Victoria, Canada : University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://www.uvic.ca/hsd/socialwork/assets/docs/research/When%20Youth%20Age%20out%20of%20care%20March2006.pdf

Schelbe, L. (2018). Struggles, successes, and setbacks: Youth aging out of child welfare in a subsidized housing program. Children and Youth Services Review, 89, 298-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.05.005

Spaapen, J., & van Drooge, L. (2011). Introducing ‘productive interactions’ in social impact assessment. Research Evaluation, 20(3), 211–218. https://doi.org/10.3152/095820211X12941371876742

Stein, M., & Dumaret, A.-C. (2011). The mental health of young people aging out of care and entering adulthood: Exploring the evidence from England and France. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2504-2511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.029

Stein, M., Ward, H., & Courtney, M. (2011). Editorial: International perspectives on young people’s transitions from care to adulthood. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2409-2411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.012

Strahl, B., Du Plessis van Breda, A., Mann-Feder, V. & Schröer, W. (2020). A multinational comparison of care-leaving policy and legislation. Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1017/ics.2020.26

Tweddle, A. (2007). Youth leaving care: how do they fare? New Directions for Youth Development, 113, 15-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.199

Ward, H. (2011). Continuities and discontinuities: Issues concerning the establishment of a persistent sense of self amongst care leavers. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2512-2518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.028

Yergeau, E., Pauzé, R., & Toupin, J. (2007). L’insertion professionnelle et l’adaptation psychosociale des jeunes adultes ayant reçu des services des centres jeunesse. Intervention (127), 58-69.

Published

2022-02-26