Conservación Neoliberal. Una breve introducción

Autores/as

  • Jim Igoe University of Virginia
  • Dan Brockington University of Sheffield

Palabras clave:

neoliberalismo, neoliberalización, conservación neoliberal, regulación, mercantilización, territorialización, privatización de la soberanía, deplazamiento

Resumen

La creciente literatura sobre 'neoliberalización de la naturaleza' aún no presta la atención adecuada a la política de conservación y sus impactos. De manera similar, los estudios de conservación no ubican las políticas de conservación en el contexto de cambios sociales y económicos más amplios que definen al neoliberalismo. En esta introducción, esbozamos y analizamos, a través de una lente neoliberal, las formas en que la conservación agrega valor (si se permite la metáfora). Analizamos de manera comparativa una selección de estudios ubicados en diferentes áreas geográficas. Argumentamos que la neoliberalización implica la re-regulación de la naturaleza a través de formas de mercantilización, y que esto, a su vez, implica nuevos tipos de territorialización: la partición de recursos y paisajes de forma que controlan y, a menudo, excluyen a la población local. La territorialización es una forma claramente visible de nueva regulación, que con frecuencia crea nuevos tipos de valores y los pone a disposición de las élites nacionales y transnacionales. Por otro lado, la neoliberalización también ha coincidido con el surgimiento de nuevas redes que atraviesan las divisiones tradicionales del estado, las organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG) y las empresas con fines de lucro. Estas redes están retóricamente unidas por ideologías neoliberales y se combinan de manera que alteran profundamente la vida de la población rural en áreas protegidas seleccionadas para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Argumentamos que la colección dispar de críticas sobre la neoliberalización de la naturaleza necesita estudios más fundamentados como los que aquí se presentan. Concluimos esta introducción con algunas recomendaciones tentativas para futuras investigaciones y políticas sobre la conservación neoliberal.

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Publicado

2022-08-05