La red urbana europea en el auge de Occidente

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37230/CyTET.2022.213.1

Palabras clave:

Geopolítica, Urbanización, Red fluvial, Civilización occidental

Resumen

Este artículo pretende analizar cómo la red urbana europea influyó en el ascenso de Occidente.
El artículo comienza examinando las principales aportaciones al debate de las causas de la dominación occidental en el mundo. Después de esto aborda el punto de vista geopolítico para analizar cómo las condiciones espaciales urbanas de la temprana edad moderna influyeron en las principales potencias europeas, y cómo esto les permitió liderar la expansión de Occidente. Para ello el artículo explora la génesis de la red urbana y su entorno geográfico. También aborda cómo las ciudades europeas mantuvieron la riqueza
dispersa en el continente y limitaron el poder de los Estados. Como consecuencia de esto la red urbana contribuyó a preservar la fragmentación geopolítica, además de impulsar el desarrollo cultural gracias a la aparición de universidades en todo el continente. Estos factores mantuvieron un entorno competitivo y llevaron a los Estados europeos a desarrollar armamentos más avanzados y a fortalecer su poder militar, lo
que les permitió derrotar a sus rivales no occidentales.

Citas

Abulafia, D. (1987): Asia, Africa and the Trade of Medieval Europe. En M. M. Postan & E. Miller (Eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of Europe (pp. 402-473), Cambridge, Cambridge University press, Vol. 2.

Abu-Lughod, J. (1989): Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350, Nueva York, Oxford University Press.

Acemoglu, D. & Robinson, J. C. (2015): Por qué fracasan los países, Barcelona, Booket.

Agnew, J. & Corbridge, S. (1995): Mastering Space. Hegemony, Territory and International Political Economy, Londres, Routledge.

Anderson, P. (1974): Lineages of the Absolutist State, Londres, Verso.

Andrade, T. (2016): The Gunpowder Age, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Ashtor, E. (1978). Underdevelopment in the Pre-Industrial Era. Journal of European Economic History, 7(2-3), 285-310.

Ashtor, E (1983): Le Proche-Orient au Bas Moyen-Âge. Une région sous développée. En A. Guarducci (Ed.), Sviluppo e sottosviluppo in Europa e fuori d'Europa dal secolo XIII alla rivoluzione industriale, Atti della "Decima settimana di studio," 7-12 aprile, 1978 (pp. 375-433), Firenze, Le Monnier.

Augoyat, A. (1860): Aperçu historique sur les fortifications, París, Ch. Tanera.

Baechler, J. (1975): The Origins of Capitalism, Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

Bairoch, P. (1985): De Jéricho à México. Villes et économie dans l’histoire, París, Gallimard

Bairoch, P & Baout, J. & Chévre, P. (1988): La population des villes européennes de 800 à 1800, Ginebra, Droz.

Becker, M. (1981): Medieval Italy, Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Beeler, J. (1984): Warfare in Feudal Europe, 730-1200, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

Beer, S. H. (1974): Modern Political Development, Nueva York, Random House.

Bisson, T. N. (1966): The Military Origins of Medieval Representation. The American Historical Review, 71(4), 1199-1218 https://doi.org/10.2307/1848584

Blockmans, W. P. (1978): A Typology of Representative Institutions in Late Medieval Europe. Journal of Medieval History, 4(2), 189-215 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4181(78)90005-2

Blum, J. (1971): The Internal Structure and Polity of the European Village Community from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries. Journal of Modern History, 43(4), 541-576 https://doi.org/10.1086/240681

Bodde, D. (1991): Chinese Thought, Society, and Science: The Intellectual and Social Background of Science and Technology in Pre-modern China, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press.

Brady, T. A. Jr. (1985): Turning Swiss: Cities and Empire, 1450-1550, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Braudel, F. (1984): Civilización material, economía y capitalismo, siglos XV-XVIII, Madrid, Alianza, Vol. 1.

Brutzkus, J. (1943): Trade with Eastern Europe, 800-1200. Economic History Review, 13(1-2), 31-41 https://doi.org/10.2307/2590513

Cairo Carou, H. (1993): Elementos para una geopolítica crítica de la guerra y la paz: la construcción social del conflicto territorial argentino-británico [Tesis doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid] https://eprints.ucm.es/id/eprint/4108/

Carretero Zamora, J. M. (1988): Cortes, monarquía, ciudades: las Cortes de Castilla a comienzos de la época moderna (1476-1515), Madrid, Siglo XXI.

Carsten, F. L. (1964): The Origins of Prussia, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Cipolla, C. (1965): Sails and Empires: Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion, 1400-1700, Nueva York, Minerva.

Cosandey, D. (1997): Le secret de l’Occident: Du miracle passé au marasme présent, París, Arléa.

Coulton, G. (1930): The Medieval Scene, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Cox, G. W. (2017): Political Institutions, Economic Liberty, and the Great Divergence. The Journal of Economic History, 77(3), 724-755. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022050717000729
Crosby, A. (1986): Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Cusack, T. R. & Eberwein, W. D. (1982): Prelude to War: Incidence, escalation and intervention in international disputes, 1900-1976. International Interactions, 9(1), 9-28 https://doi.org/10.1080/03050628208434588

D’Haenens, A. (1982): Manifestations d’une mutation. En G. Duby & R. Mantran (Dirs.), L’Eurasie XI-XIIIe siècles (pp. 9-67), París, Presses Universitaires de France.

Dahl, R. (1971): Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition, New Haven, Yale University Press.

Daly, J. (2014): The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization, Nueva York, Bloomsbury.

Daly, J. (2015): Historians Debate the Rise of the West, Abingdon, Routledge.

Dawson, C. (1950): Religion and the Rise of Western Culture, Nueva York, Sheed and Ward.

De Roover, R. (1965): The Organization of Trade. En M. Postan, E. Rich & E. Miller (Eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of Europe (pp. 42-118), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 3.

Deng, K. G. (1999): The Premodern Chinese Economy Structural Equilibrium and Capitalist Sterility, Londres, Routledge.

Diamond, J. (2009): Armas, gérmenes y acero, Barcelona, DeBolsillo.

Diffie, B. W. (1985): Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

Dobb, M. (1947): Studies in the Development of Capitalism, Nueva York, International Publishers.

Dodds, K. & Atkinson, D. (Eds.) (2003): Geopolitical Traditions: A Century of Geopolitical Thought, Londres, Routledge.

Dodds, K. (2005): Global Geopolitics: A Critical Introduction, Harlow, Pearson.

Dorpalen, A. (Ed.) (1966): The World of General Haushofer. Geopolitics in Action, Port Washington, Kennikat Press.

Dorpalen, A. (1982): Geopolítica en acción. El mundo del Gral. Haushofer, Buenos Aires, Pleamar.

Downing, B. M. (1992): The Military Revolution and Political Change: Origins of Democracy and Autocracy in Early Modern Europe, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Droysen, G. & Andree, R. (1886): Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas in Sechsundneunzig Karten Mit Erläuterndem Text, Bielefeld, Velhagen & Klasing.

Duby, G. (1974): The Early Growth of the European Economy, Londres, Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Duffy, C. (1979): Siege Warfare: The Fortress in the Early Modern World 1494-1660, Londres, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Elliot, B. & McCrane, D. (1982): The City: Patterns of Domination and Conflict, Londres, The Macmillan Press.

Elvin, M. (1973): The Pattern of the Chinese Past, Londres, Eyre Methuen.

Ennen, E. (1979): The Medieval Town, Ámsterdam, North-Holland Publishing.

Ferguson, N. (2012): Civilización. Occidente y el resto, Barcelona, Debate.

Fossier, R. (1989): Enfance de l'Europe, París, Presses Universitaires de France.

Foucault, M. (1995): Un diálogo sobre el poder, Barcelona, Altaya.

Foucher, M. (1991): Fronts et frontières. Un tour du monde géopolitique, París, Fayard.

Frank, A. G. (1970): Latin America: Underdevelopment or Revolution: Essays on the Development of Underdevelopment and the Immediate Enemy, Londres, Monthly Review Press.

Frank, A. G (1998): Reorient: Global Economy in the Asian Age, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Fraser, G. M. (1971): The Steel Bonnets: The Story of the Anglo-Scottish Border Reivers, Londres, Pan Books.

Friedman, D. R. (1977): A Theory of the Size and Shape of Nations. Journal of Political Economy, 85(1), 59-77 https://doi.org/10.1086/260545

Gascoigne, J. (1990): A Reappraisal of the Role of the Universities in the Scientific Revolution. En D.C. Lindberg & R.S. Westman (Eds.), Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (pp. 207-260), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Gelderblom, O. (2013): Cities of Commerce: The Institutional Foundations of International Trade in the Low Countries, 1250–1650, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Goody, J. (1996): The East in the West, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Gourevitch, P. (1978): The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of Domestic Politics. International Organization, 32(4), 881-912 https://doi.org/10.1017/S002081830003201X

Grabowsky, A. (1933): Das Problem der Geopolitik, Zeitschrift für Politik, (22), 765-802.

Gray, C.S. (2005): Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare, Londres, Widenfeld & Nicolson.

Guerlac, H. (1986): Vauban: The Impact of Science on War. En P. Paret (Ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (pp. 60-90), Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Hale, J. R. (1998): War and Society in Renaissance Europe 1450-1620, Guernsey, Sutton.

Hall, A. R. (1954): The Scientific Revolution 1500-1800, Londres, Longman Green.

Hall, A. R. (2004): Science. En G.R. Elton (Ed.), The New Cambridge Modern History (pp. 422-451), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 2.

Hall, J. A. (1985): Powers and Liberties: The Causes and Consequences of the Rise of the West, Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

Hart, M. C't. (1993): The Making of a Bourgeois State: War, Politics and Finance During the Dutch Revolt, Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Haskins, C. H. (1965): The Rise of Universities, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

Hay, D. (2004): Literature. En G.R. Elton (Ed.), The New Cambridge Modern History (pp. 401-421), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 2.

Headrick, D. R. (1981): The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Heffernan, M. (1998): The Meaning of Europe: Geography and Geopolitics, Londres, Arnold.

Hegel, F. G. W. (1956): The Philosophy of History, Nueva York, Dover Publications.

Herlihy, D. (1974): Ecological Conditions and Demographic Change. En R.L. DeMolen (Ed.), One Thousand Years: Western Europe in the Middle Ages (pp. 3-43), Boston, Houghton Mifflin.

Hilton, R. (1973): Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381, Londres, Temple Smith.

Hintze, O. (1968): Historia de las formas políticas, Madrid, Revista de Occidente.

Hirschman, A. O. (1977): The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism before its Triumph, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Hirschman, A. O. (1978): Exit, Voice, and the State. World Politics, 31(1), 90-107 https://doi.org/10.2307/2009968

Hobson, J. H. (2003): The Eastern Origins of the Western Civilization, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Hodgson, M. G. S. (1993): Rethinking World History: Essays on Europe, Islam, and World History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Hohenberg, P. & Lees, L. H. (1985): The Making of Urban Europe, 1000-1850, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Hohenberg, P. & Lees, L. H. (1995): The Making of Urban Europe, 1000-1994, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Huff, T. F. (1993): The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Hui, V. T. B. (2011): War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Huppert, G. (1999): After the Black Death: A Social History of Early Modern Europe, Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Jones, E. L. (1982): The European Miracle: Environments, Economics and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia, Nueva York, Cambridge University Press.

Jones, P. (2004): The Italian City-State: From Commune to Signoria, Nueva York, Clarendon Press.

Kamen, H. (1976): The Iron Century: Social Change in Europe 1500-1660, Londres, Cardinal.

Kennedy, P. (2013): Auge y caída de las grandes potencias, Barcelona, DeBolsillo.

Kristof, L. K. D. (1960): The Origins and Evolution of Geopolitics. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 4(1), 15-51 https://doi.org/10.1177/002200276000400103

Lacoste, Y. (1985): Géographie, géopolitique et relations internationales. Relations Internationales, (41), 39-58.

Labib, S. (1974): Medieval Islamic Maritime Policy in the Indian Ocean Area. En Socieéteé Jean Bodin pour l'histoire comparative des institutions, Les grandes escales. première partie, antiquité et moyen-âge: 10e colloque d'histoire maritime (pp. 225-241), Bruselas, Éd. de la Librairie encyclopédique.

Landes, D. (1998): The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are so Rich and Some So Poor, Nueva York, W. W. Norton.

Lang, G. (1997): Structural Factors in the Origins of Modern Science: A Comparison of China and Europe. En S.T. Zepetnek & J. Jay (Eds.), East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives (pp. 71-96), Edmonton, University of Alberta.

Le Goff, J. (1979): La Baja Edad Media, Madrid, Siglo XXI.

Le Goff, J. (1988): Medieval Civilization, Nueva York, Basil Blackwell.

Le Goff, J. (1990): Los intelectuales en la Edad Media, Barcelona, Gedisa.

Le Roy Ladurie, E. (1979): The Territory of the Historian, Hassocks, The Harvester Press.

Lefebvre, H. (2013): La producción del espacio, Madrid, Capitán Swing.

Lenin, V. I. (1974): El imperialismo, fase superior del capitalismo, Madrid, Fundamentos.

Lopez, R. & Raymond, I. (1967): Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World, Nueva York, W. W. Norton.

Lopez, R. S. (1976): The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950-1350, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Mallet, M. & Shaw, C. (2014): The Italian Wars, 1494-1559: War, State and Society in Early Modern Europe, Abingdon, Routledge.

Mamadouh, V. D. (1998): Geopolitics in the Nineties: One Flag, Many Meanings. GeoJournal, 46(4), 237-253. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006950931650

Mann, M. (1991): Las fuentes del poder social, I, Madrid, Alianza.

Maull, O. (1925): Politische Geographie, Berlín, Borntraeger.

McFarland, A. (1969): Power and Leadership in Pluralist Systems, Stanford, Stanford University Press.

McNeill, W. H. (1963): The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

McNeill, W. H. (1982): The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force, and Society since A.D. 1000, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Mearsheimer, J. J. (2014): The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, Nueva York, Norton.

Meyer, J. (1981): Les Capitalismes, París, Presses Universitaires de France.

Mielants, E. (2008): The Origins of Capitalism and the “Rise of the West”, Philadelphia, Temple University Press.

Miskimin, H. (1975): The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe, 1300-1460, Nueva York, Cambridge University Press.

Mokyr, J. (1990): The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress, Nueva York, Oxford University Press.

Montesquieu, C. (2012): El espíritu de las leyes, Barcelona, Ediciones Brontes.

Moore, R. I. (2003): La primera revolución europea, Barcelona, Crítica.

Morris, R. (1988): Northern Europe Invades the Mediterranean, 900-1200. En G. Holmes (Ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe (pp. 175-234), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Morrison, I. (2016): ¿Por qué manda Occidente… por ahora?, Barcelona, Ático de los libros.

Mumford, L. (2014): La ciudad en la historia. Sus orígenes, transformaciones y perspectivas, Logroño, Pepitas de Calabaza.

Murayama, Y. (2000): Study of Urban Systems: Outcomes and Issues. En M. Murayama, Japanese Urban System (pp. 9-33). Dordrecht, Springer.

Needham, J. (1969). The Grand Titration: Science and Society in East and West. Londres, Allen & Unwin.

North, D. C. & Thomas, R. C. (1973): The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Ó Tuathail, G. & Agnew, J. (1992): Geopolitics and Discourse: Practical Geopolitical Reasoning and American Foreign Policy. Political Geography, 11(2), 190-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/0962-6298(92)90048-X

Pagden, A. (2011): Mundos en guerra. 2500 años de conflicto entre Oriente y Occidente, Barcelona, RBA.

Painter, S. (1975): The Rise of the Feudal Monarchies, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

Parker, G. (1990): La revolución militar. Las innovaciones militares y el apogeo de Occidente 1500-1800, Barcelona, Crítica.

Parker, G. (1995): The “Military Revolution 1560-1660” - A Myth?. En C.J. Rogers (Ed.), The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe (pp. 55-93), Boulder, Westview.

Parker, G. (2004): Sovereign City: The City-State through History, Londres, Reaktion Books.

Pirenne, H. (1952): Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Pocock, J. G. A. (2002): Some Europes in their History. En A. Pagden (Ed.), The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union (pp. 55-71), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Poggi, G. (1978): The Development of the Modern State, Stanford, Hutchinson & Co.

Pomeranz, K. (2000): The Great Divergence: Europe, China, and the Making of the Modern World Economy, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Postan, M. M. (1975): The Medieval Economy and Society, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.

Pounds, N. J. G. (1973): An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Pounds, N. J. G. (2009): An Historical Geography of Europe 1500-1840, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Pounds, N. J. G. & Ball, S. S. (1964): Core-Areas and the Development of the European States System. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 54(1), 24-40 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1964.tb00472.x

Pred, A. R. (1977): City-Systems in Advanced Economies, Londres, Hutchinson.

Qian, W. Y. (1985): The Great Inertia: Scientific Stagnation in Traditional China, Londres, Croom Helm.

Randall, J. (1954): The Making of the Modern Mind, Boston, Houghton Mifflin.

Rashdall, H. (1929): The Medieval Universities. En J. B. Bury (Ed.), The Cambridge Medieval History (pp. 559-601), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 6.

Reynolds, S. (1986): Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe, 900-1300, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Ridder-Symoens, H. de (Ed.) (2003): A History of the University in Europe, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Vol.1 y 2.

Roberts, M. (1956): Military Revolution, 1560-1660: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered Before the Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, M. Boyd.

Rokkan, S. (1975): Dimensions of State Formation and Nation-Building: A Possible Paradigm for Research on Variations within Europe. En C. Tilly (Ed.), The Formation of National States in Western Europe (pp. 562-600), Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Rörig, F. (1967): The Medieval Town, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Russell, J. C. (1972): Medieval Regions and their Cities, Newton Abbot, David & Charles.

Sardar, Z. (1977): Science, Technology and Development in the Muslim World, Londres, Croom Helm.

Sayer, A. (1979): Epistemology and Conceptions of People and Nature in Geography. Geoforum, 10(1), 19-44 https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7185(79)90012-5

Scammel, G. V. (1981): The World Encompasseed: The First European Maritime Empires c. 800-1650, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Schevill, F. (1936): History of Florence: From the Founding of the City through the Renaissance, Nueva York, Harcourt Brace.

Schumann, R. (1986): Italy in the Last Fifteen Hundred Years, Lanham, University Press of America.

Sempa, F. P. (2002): Geopolitics: from the Cold War to the 21st century, New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers.

Sivard, R. L. (1986): World Military and Social Expenditures, Washington D.C., World Priorities.

Sivin, N. (1982): Why the Scientific Revolution Did Not Take Place in China – or Didn’t It?. Chinese Science, 5, 45-66. https://doi.org/10.1163/26669323-00501006

Small, M. & Singer, J. D. (1982): Resort to Arms. International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980, Beverly Hills, Sage.

Southall, A. (1998): The City in Time and Space, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Spruyt, H. (1996): The Sovereign State and Its Competitors, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Storey, D. (2001): Territory: the Claiming of Space, Harlow, Pearson Education.

Tilly, C. (1975): Reflections on the History of European State-Making. En C. Tilly (Ed.), The Formation of National States in Western Europe (pp. 3-83), Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Tilly, C. (1992): Coerción, capital y los Estados europeos 990-1990, Madrid, Alianza.

Tout, T. F. (1934): The Collected Papers of Thomas F. Tout, Manchester, Manchester University Press, Vol. 3.

Tracy, J. D. (1990): Holland Under Habsburg Rule, 1506-1566: The Formation of a Body Politic, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Tuma, E. (1979): European Economic History, Palo Alto, Pacific Book Publishers.

Udovitch, A. (1993): Market and Society in the Medieval Islamic World. En Centro italiano di studi sull'alto Medioevo. Settimane di studio, Mercati e mercanti nell'alto Medioevo: l'area euroasiatica e l'area mediterranea (pp. 767-798), Spoleto, Presso La Sede del Centro.

Urlanis, B. Ts. (1960): Войны и народонаселение Европы, Moscú, Издательство социально-экономической литературы.

Van Evera, S. (1999): Causes of War: Power and the Roots of Conflict, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

Vaubel, R. (2008): A History of Thought on Institutional Competition. En A. Bergh & R. Hijer (Eds.), Institutional Competition (pp. 29-66), Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.

Vicens Vives, J. (1981): Tratado general de geopolítica. El factor geográfico y el proceso histórico, Barcelona, Editorial Vicens-Vives.

Vidal de la Blache, P. (1911): Les genres de vie dans la géographie humaine. Annales de géographie, (112), 289-304. https://doi.org/10.3406/geo.1911.7312

Vidal Pérez, E. (2020). Auge y hegemonía mundial de Occidente (s. XV-XXI): un enfoque geopolítico. [Tesis doctoral, Universidad del País Vasco]. https://addi.ehu.es/handle/10810/50378
Vidal Pérez, E. (2021): Fragmentación geopolítica y equilibrio de poder en el auge de Occidente. Revista Electrónica de Estudios Internacionales, (42), diciembre. http://dx.doi.org/10.17103/reei.42.05

Volz, W. (1925): Lebensraum und Lebensrecht des deutschen Volkes. Deutsche Arbeit, (24), 169-174.

Vries, J. De (1984): European Urbanization, 1500-1800, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Waley, D. (1969): The Italian City-Republics, Nueva York, McGraw-Hill.

Wallerstein, I. (1974): The Modern World System, Nueva York, Academic Press.

Wallerstein, I. (2000): The Essential Wallerstein, Nueva York, The New Press.

Walsh, J. (1970): The Thirteenth, Greatest of Centuries, Nueva York, AMS Press.

Waltz, K. (1979): Theory of International Politics, Reading, Addison-Wesley.

Weaver, J. C. (2006): The Great Land Rush and the Making of the Modern World, 1650-1900, Montréal, McGill-Queens University Press.

Weber, M. (1958): The City, Nueva York, Free Press.

Werveke, H. van (1963): The Rise of the Towns. En M. Postan & E. Rich & E. Miller (Eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of Europe (pp. 3-41), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 3.

Wesson, R. G. (1978): State Systems: International Pluralism, Politics and Culture, Nueva York, The Free Press.

White, L. (1962): Medieval Technology and Social Change, Londres, Oxford University Press.

Wickham, C. (1981): Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society, 400-1000, Londres, Macmillan.

Wilson, K. & Van der Dussen, J. (Eds.) (1995): The History of the Idea of Europe, Milton Keynes, Open University.

Descargas

Publicado

2022-10-03

Cómo citar

Vidal-Pérez, E. (2022). La red urbana europea en el auge de Occidente. Ciudad Y Territorio Estudios Territoriales, 54(213), 521–544. https://doi.org/10.37230/CyTET.2022.213.1