The representation of business interests during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain


  • Laura Chaqués-Bonafont University of Barcelona and BEI
  • Iván Medina University of Valencia


Palabras clave:

organizaciones empresariales, COVID-19, grupos de interés, Parlamento, Gobierno


Este artículo explica la representación de intereses empresariales durante la pandemia de COVID-19. El artículo describe cómo las organizaciones empresariales participan en el proceso de elaboración de políticas públicas en diferentes áreas temáticas y espacios políticos. Siguiendo estudios previos (Dür y Mateo, 2016), el artículo sostiene que la pandemia COVID-19 no ha alterado la posición de los grupos empresariales en el proceso de formulación de políticas. Los grupos empresariales ocupan un papel predominante en la discusión de propuestas de políticas frente a otros tipos de grupos de interés durante la COVID-19 en la arena gubernamental, especialmente en el caso de las políticas relacionadas con la economía y los asuntos agrícolas. Por el contrario, los grupos empresariales ocupan un papel secundario en el Parlamento, especialmente en la discusión de cuestiones no económicas. El artículo también explica qué asociaciones comerciales representan intereses empresariales durante la pandemia. La estrategia empírica se basa en dos bases de datos desarrolladas por el grupo de investigación Calidad de la Democracia ( sobre la movilización de grupos de interés en el Congreso de los Diputados y el Gobierno español de marzo de 2020 a marzo de 2021.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aguilar, Susana. 2020. “Interest groups, business associations and trade unions”, in D. Muro and I. Lago (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Spanish Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at:

Baumgartner, Frank R. and Beth L. Leech. 2001. “Interest Niches and Policy Bandwagons: Patterns of Interest Group Involvement in National Politics”, The Journal of Politics, 63: 1191-1213. Available at:

Baumgartner, Frank R. and Bryan Jones. 2005. The Politics of Attention: How Government Prioritizes Problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Baumgartner, Frank R., Jeffrey M. Berry, Marie Hojnacki, Beth L. Leech and David C. Kimball. 2009. Lobbying and policy change: Who wins, who loses, and why. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Available at:

Bell, Stephen. 2012. “The Power of Ideas: The Ideational Shaping of the Structural Power of Business”, International Studies Quarterly, 56: 661-673. Available at:

Belzunegui-Eraso, Ángel and Amaya Erro-Garcés. 2020. “Teleworking in the Context of the COVID-19 Crisis”, Sustainability, 12 (9): 1-18. Available at:

Bernhagen, Patrick. 2007. The Political Power of Business: Structure and Information in Public Policymaking. London: Routledge. Available at:

Beyers, Jan, Laura Chaqués-Bonafont, Andreas Dür, Rainer Eising, Danika Fink-Hafner, David Lowery, William Mahoney, Chistine Maloney and Daniel Naurin. 2014. “The INTEREURO Project: Logic and structure”, Interest Groups and Advocacy, 3 (2): 126-140. Available at:

Binderkrantz, Anne S., Peter M. Christiansen and Helene H. Pedersen. 2015. “Interest Group Access to the Bureaucracy, Parliament, and the Media”, Governance, 28 (1): 95-112. Available at:

Binderkrantz, Anne S., Peter M. Christiansen and Helene H. Pedersen. 2020. “Mapping interest group access to politics: a presentation of the INTERARENA research project”, Interest Groups and Advocacy 9 (3): 290-301. Available at:

Bouwen, Pieter. 2002. “Corporate lobbying in the European Union: The logic of access”, Journal of European Public Policy, 9 (3): 365-390. Available at:

Chaqués-Bonafont, Laura. 2004. Redes de políticas públicas. Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.

Chaqués-Bonafont, Laura. 2020. “Interest groups and political representation”, in M. Cotta and F. Russo (eds.), Handbook of Political Representation. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:

Chaqués-Bonafont, Laura and Luz M. Muñoz. 2016. “Explaining interest group access to parliamentary committees”, West European Politics, 39 (6): 1276-1298. Available at:

Coen, David and Alexander Katsaitis. 2013. “Chameleon pluralism in the EU: an empirical study of the European Commission interest group density and diversity across policy domains”, Journal of European Public Policy 20 (8): 1104-1119. Available at:

Coen, David and Wyn Grant. 2006. “Managing business and government relations”, in D. Coen and W. Grant (eds.), Business and Government: Methods and Practice. IPSA 2000 Series. Opladen: Barbara Budrich. Available at:

Coen, David, and Jeremy Richardson (eds.). 2009. Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors, and Issue. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dür, Andreas and Gemma Mateo. 2013. “Gaining Access or Going Public? Interest Group Strategies in Five European Countries”, European Journal of Political Research 52 (5): 660-686. Available at:

Dür, Andreas and Gemma Mateo. 2016. Insiders versus Outsiders: Interest Group Politics in Multilevel Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at:

Dür, Andreas, David Marshall and Patrick Bernhagen. 2019. The Political Influence of Business in the European Union. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Eising, Rainer and Florian Spohr. 2017. “The More, the Merrier? Interest Groups and Legislative Change in the Public Hearings of the German Parliamentary Committees”, German Politics, 26 (2): 314-333. Available at:

Fraussen, Bert, Jan Beyers and Tom Donas. 2015. “The Expanding Core and Varying Degrees of Insiderness: Institutionalised Interest Group Access to Advisory Councils”, Political Studies, 63 (3): 569-588. Available at:

Gilens, Martin and Benjamin I. Page. 2014. “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens”, Perspectives on Politics, 12 (3): 564-581. Available at:

Gómez Funes, Andrés. 2020. Generación, género y tecnología en las organizaciones empresariales españolas (1998-2018) [unpublished PhD. Dissertation].

Hanegraaff, Marcel and Joost Berkhout. 2019. “More business as usual? Explaining business bias across issues and institutions in the European Union”, Journal of European Public Policy, 26 (6): 843-862. Available at:

Junk, Wiebke M., Michele Crepaz, Marcel Hanegraaff, Joost Berkhout and Ellis Aizenberg. 2021. “Changes in interest group access in times of crisis: no pain, no (lobby) gain”, Journal of European Public Policy. Available at:

Kohler-Koch, Beate, Peter Kotzian and Christine Quittkat. 2017. “The Multilevel Interest Representation of National Business Associations”, West European Politics, 40 (5): 1046-1065. Available at:

LaPira, Timothy M. 2014. “Lobbying after 9/11: Policy regime emergence and interest group mobilization”, Policy Studies Journal, 42 (2): 226-251. Available at:

Marsh, David and Chris Lewis. 2013. “The Political Power of Big Business: A Response to Bell and Hindmoor”, New Political Economy, 19 (4): 628-633. Available at:

Marsh, David and R. A. W. Rhodes (eds.). 1992. Policy Networks in British Government. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Available at:

McFarland, Andrew S. 2004. Neopluralism: The Evolution of Political Process Theory. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Medina, Iván. 2016. “Are Business Associations Involved in Regional Politics? Evidence from Spain and the United Kingdom”, European Urban and Regional Studies, 23 (3): 389-405. Available at:

Medina, Iván and Joaquim M. Molins. 2021. “Institutional Change in Spanish Chambers of Commerce”, in D. Sack (ed.), Chambers of Commerce in Europe. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. Available at:

Molina, Oscar. 2021. Spain: Working life in the COVID-19 pandemic 2020. Eurofund Working Paper.

Pakull, Dominic, David Marshall and Patrick Bernhagen. 2020. “Shop till you drop? Venue choices of business and non-business interests in the European Union”, Interest Groups and Advocacy, 9: 520-540. Available at:

Pedersen, Helene H., Anne S. Binderkrantz and Peter M. Christiansen. 2014. “Legislative Process in Denmark”, Legislative Studies Quarterly, 39: 199-225. Available at:

Rhodes, R. A. W. 2006. “Policy Network Analysis”, in M. Moran, M. Rein and R. E. Goodin (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richardson, Jeremy and Grant Jordan. 1979. Governing Under Pressure. Oxford: Martin Roberson.

Rodríguez, Diego. 2020. Teletrabajo, acceso a Internet y apoyo a la digitalización en el contexto del COVID-19. FEDEA report, No. 2020-08.

Salisbury, Robert H. 1969. “An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups”, Midwest Journal of Political Science, 13 (1): 1-32. Available at:

Schattschneider, Elmer E. 1960. The Semisovereign People: A Realist’s View of Democracy in America. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Schneider, Volker. 2006. “Business in Policy Networks: Estimating the Relative Importance of Corporate Direct Lobbying and Representation by Trade Associations”, in D. Coen and W. Grant (eds.), Business and Government: Methods and Practice. IPSA 2000 Series. Opladen: Barbara Budrich. Available at:



Cómo citar

Chaqués-Bonafont, L., & Medina, I. (2021). The representation of business interests during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (57), 21–44.



Sección monográfica