Liderazgo Instruccional Intermedio: Enfoques Internacionales para el Desarrollo Docente en las Escuelas Chilenas

  • Ricardo Sepúlveda Universidad Pontificia Católica de Chile
  • Paulo Volante Universidad Pontificia Católica de Chile
Palabras clave: , desarrollo Académico, gestión Escolar, liderazgo, organización escolar, personal docente

Resumen

Aun cuando en las últimas décadas la investigación ha relevado el liderazgo del director como factor clave para alcanzar buenos desempeños escolares (Hallinger & Murphy, 1985; Leithwood, 2009; Supovitz, Sirinides & Henry, 2010), éste también puede ser ejercido por otros agentes en las escuelas. Más recientemente diversos esfuerzos se han realizado para comprender cómo ciertos profesores influyen entre sus pares docentes (Bennett, Woods, Wise & Newton, 2007; Blandford, 2006; Busher, Hammersley-Fletcher & Turner, 2007) destacando su rol instruccional para asegurar el currículum y procesos de mejora (Busher, 2005a; Heng & Marsh, 2009). El presente artículo, bajo el proyecto Fondecyt Regular Nº 1161605, indaga sobre las expectativas de influencia de profesores en posiciones intermedias en las escuelas chilenas, a partir de una revisión bibliográfica y de experiencias internacionales. Se presenta un análisis sobre los enfoques, condiciones organizacionales, destacando oportunidades para potenciar el rol de mentor docente para mejor logro escolar.

Citas

Bennett, N. (2003). Assessing the impact on practice of professional development activities. In N. Bennett & L. Anderson (Eds.). Rethinking educational leadership: Challenging the conventions. London: Sage, 159-170.

Bennet, N. (2005). The rol of subject leaders in secondary schools facing challenging circumstances: a report for the National College for School Leadership, Nottingham: National College for School Leadership.

Bennet, N., Woods P, Wise, C y Newton, W. (2007). Understandings of middle leadership in secondary schools: A review of empirical research. School Leadership and Management, 27(5), 453-470.

Blandford, S. (2006). Middle Leadership in Schools. Harmonising Leadership and Learning. London: Pearson Education Limited.

Brown, M., Rutherford, D. & Boyle, B. (2000). Leadership for school improvement:

The role of the Head of Department in UK secondary schools. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11(2), 237-258, doi: 10.1076/09243453(200006)11:2;1-q;ft237

Brundrett, M. (2006). Evaluating the individual and combined impact of national leadership programmes in England: Perceptions and practices. School Leadership and Management, 26(5), 473-488, doi: 10.1080/13632430601007931

Busher, H. (2005a). Being a middle leader: Exploring professional identities. School Leadership and Management, 25(2), 137-153, doi: 10.1080/13632430500036231

Busher, H. (2005b). The project of the other: Developing inclusive learning communities in schools. Oxford Review of Education, 31(4), 459-477, doi: 10.1080/03054980500222221

Busher, H., Hammersley-Fletcher, L. & Turner C. (2007). Making sense of middle leadership: Community, power and practice. School Leadership and Management, 27(5), 405-422, doi: 10.1080/13632430701606061

Cancino, V. & Vera, L. (2017) Políticas educativas de fortalecimiento del liderazgo directivo: desafíos para Chile en un análisis comparado con países OCDE. Ensaio: Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação, 25(94), 26-58, doi: 10.1590/S0104-40362017000100002

Chow, A.W.K. (2016). Teacher learning communities: the landscape of subject leadership. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(2), 287-307.

Clarke, M., Killeavy, M. y Ferris, R. (2015). Mentor teachers as leaders and followers in school-based contexts in the Republic of Ireland. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(3), 368-379.

Dinham, S. (2007). The secondary Head of Department and the achievement of exceptional student outcomes. Journal of Educational Administration, 45(1), 62-79, doi: 10.1108/09578230710722458

Edwards-Groves, C., Grootenboer, P. y Rönnerman, K. (2016). Facilitating a culture of relational trust in school-based action research: Recognising the role of middle leaders. Educational Action Research, 24(3), 369-386, doi: 10.1080/09650792.2015.1131175

Fitzgerald, T. (2000). School middle managers: The frequently forgotten tier in schools. English in Aotearoa, 40, 5-9.

Fleming, P. (2000). The Art of Middle Management in Secondary Schools. A Guide to Effective Subject and Team Leadership. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Glover, D. y Miller D. (1999). The working day of the subject leader and the impact of interruptions on teaching and learning in secondary schools. Educational Research, 41(3), 341-349.

Ghamrawi, N. (2010). No teacher left behind: Subject leadership that promotes teacher leadership. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 38(3), 304-320.

Ghamrawi, N. (2011). Trust me: Your school can be better-a message from teachers to Principals. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 39(3), 333-348.

Grootenboer, P., Edwards-Groves C. & Rönnerman, K. (2015). Leading practice development: voices from the middle. Professional Development in Education, 41(3), 508-526.

Gurr, D. & Drysdale, L. (2013). Middle-level secondary school leaders: Potential, constraints and implications for leadership preparation and development. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(1), 55-71.

Hadfield, M. (2007). Co-leaders and middle leaders: The dynamic between leaders and followers in networks of schools". School Leadership and Management, 27(3), 259-283, doi: 10.1080/13632430701379552

Hammersley-Fletcher, L. (2002). Becoming a subject leader: What's in a name? Subject leadership in English primary schools. School Leadership and Management, 22(4), 407-420, doi: 10.1080/1363243022000053420

Hammersley-Fletcher, L. & Strain, M. (2011). Power, agency and middle leadership in English primary schools. British Educational Research Journal, 37(5), 871-884, doi: 10.1080/01411926.2010.506944

Heng, M.A. & Marsh, C.J. (2009). Understanding middle leaders: a closer look at middle leadership in primary schools in Singapore. Educational Studies, 35(5), 525-536, doi: 10.1080/03055690902883863

Horn, A. & Marfán J. (2010). Relación entre Liderazgo Educativo y Desempeño Escolar: Revisión de la Educación en Chile. Psicoperspectivas Individuo y Sociedad, 9(2), 82-104.

Howe, A.C. & Stubbs, H.S. (2003). From Science Teacher to Teacher Leader: Leadership Development as Meaning Making in a Community of Practice. Science Education, 87(2), 281-297, doi: 10.1002/sce.10022

Irvine, P. & Brundrett, M. (2016). Middle leadership and its challenges: a case study in the secondary independent sector. Management in Education, vol. 30(2), 86-92, doi: 10.1177/0892020616643158

Jarvis, A. (2008). Leadership lost: A case study in three selective secondary schools. Management in Education, 22(1), 24-30, doi: 10.1177/0892020607085627

Kirkham, G. (2005). Leading and achieving a learning school through developing middle leaders. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(2), 151-163, doi: 10.1080/02619760500093180

Koh, H.H., Gurr, D., Drysdale, L. & Ang, L.L. (2011). How school leaders perceive the leadership role of middle leaders in Singapore primary schools? Asia Pacific Education Review, 22(4), 609-620.

Leithwood, K. (2009). ¿Cómo liderar nuestras Escuelas? Aportes desde la

investigación. Santiago, Chile: Fundación Chile.

Lim, Y.H. (2006). Education in Singapore: Preparation for School Leadership. Paper presented at the "Australian Secondary Principals’ Association National Conference".

Melville, W., Jones, D. & Campbell, T. (2014). Distributed leadership with the aim of reculturing: A departmental case study. School Leadership and Management, 34(3), 237-254.

Ministerio de Educación (1997) Ley 19070/1997,de 22 de Enero de 1997, Estatuto de los Profesionales de la Educación. Diario Oficial de la Republica de Chile, 22 de Enero de 1997, núm 35672, pp. 8-19.

Ministerio de Educación (2016) Ley 23903/ de 1 Abril de 2016, de Sistema de Desarrollo Profesional Docente. Diario Oficial de la República de Chile. Santiago, Chile, 1 de Abril de 2016, núm 41421, pp. 1-24.

Ministerio de Educación (2017) Ley 21040/2017, de 24 de Noviembre de 2017,

Sistema de Educación Pública. Diario Oficial de la República de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 24 de Noviembre de 2017, núm 41916, pp. 1-62.

Ng, P.T. (2015). What is quality education? How can it be achieved? The perspectives of school middle leaders in Singapore. Educational Assessment Evaluation and Accountability, 27(4), 307-322.

Ng, S. & Chan, T.K. (2014). Continuing professional development for middle leaders in primary schools in Hong Kong. Journal of Educational Administration, 52(6), 869-886.

OECD (2008). Improving School Leadership. Policy and Practice (1), 199. http://www.oecd.org/education/school/49847132.pdf

Pinto, V., Galdames, S. & Rodríguez, S. (2010). Aprendizajes y Desafíos para la Formación de Líderes Intermedios de Organizaciones Educativas. Psicoperspectivas Individuo y Sociedad, 9(2), 136-157.

Rhodes, C. & Brundrett, M. (2006). The identification, development, succession and retention of leadership talent in contextually different primary schools: A case study located within the English West Midlands. School Leadership and Management, 26(3), 269-287, doi: 10.1080/13632430600737124

Rhodes, C. & Brundrett, M. (2009). Growing the leadership talent pool: Perceptions of heads, middle leaders and classroom teachers about professional development and leadership succession planning within their own schools. Professional Development in Education, 35(3), 381-398, doi: 10.1080/19415250902987122

Rhodes, C., Brundrett, M. & Nevill, A. (2008). Leadership talent identification and development: Perceptions of heads, middle leaders and classroom teachers in 70 contextually different primary and secondary schools in England. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 36(3), 311-335, doi: 10.1177/1741143208090592

Ribbins, P. (2007). Middle leadership in schools in the UK: Improving design - A subject leader's history. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 10(1), 13-30, doi: 10.1080/13603120600934061

Ritchie, S. M., Mackay, G. & Rigano, D. L. (2005). Individual and collective leadership in school science departments. Research in Science Education, 36(3), 141-161, doi: 10.1007/s11165-005-9001-6

Sepúlveda, R., Villalón, M. & Volante, P. (2014). El desafío de liderar pares docentes:

Hacia la caracterización del liderazgo docente intermedio y la relevancia de la Tolerancia y Libertad en profesores a cargo de sus pares en un programa de mejoramiento de lectoescritura". En J.R. Ulloa, S (Ed.). Liderazgo Escolar y Desarrollo Profesional de Docentes, Santiago, Chile: RIL Editores, 209.

Shapira-Lishchinsky, O. & Levy-Gazenfrantz, T. (2015). Authentic leadership strategies in support of mentoring processes. School Leadership and Management, 35(2), 183-201.

Stein, M.K. & Nelson B.S. (2003). Leadership content knowledge. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(4), 423-448.

Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P. & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(31), 31-56.

Taylor, M., Yates, A., Meyer, L.H. & Kinsella, P. (2011). Teacher professional leadership in support of teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(1), 85-94.

Thorpe, A. & Bennet´Powell, G.(2014). The percepctions of secondary school middle leaders regarding their needs following a middle leadership programme. Management in Education, 28 (2), 52-57, doi: 10.1177/0892020614529808

Turner, C. (2007). Leading from The Middle: dealing with diversity and complexity. School Leadership and Management, 27(5), 401-403.

Webb, R. (2005). Leading Teaching and Learning in the Primary School: From Educative Leadership to Pedagogical Leadership. Educational Management Administration Leadership, 32(69).

Wong, C., Wong, P. & Peng, K. Z. (2010). Effect of middle-level leader and teacher emotional intelligence on school teachers' job satisfaction: The case of Hong Kong. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 38(1), 59-70, doi: 10.1177/1741143209351831