Estimación del estudiante profundo a través de un modelo cognitivo-social

  • Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche
  • María Ruiz Quiles Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche
  • Yolanda Silveira Torregrosa Universidad de Almeria
  • Antonio Alias García Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche
Palabras clave: aprendizaje activo, autonomía personal, autodeterminación, motivación, necesidades psicológicas básicas, procesos de aprendizaje

Resumen

Resumen:

El objetivo de este estudio consistió en comprobar el poder de predicción del soporte de autonomía, las necesidades psicológicas básicas (percepción de competencia, de autonomía y de relación con los demás) y la motivación autodeterminada sobre el estudiante adolescente con un enfoque de aprendizaje profundo. La muestra ha estado compuesta por 405 estudiantes españoles de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, Bachillerato y Ciclos Formativos (212 mujeres y 193 hombres), con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y 20 años (M = 16.4, DT = 2.45). Se administraron las escalas Student’s Percepcion of Autonomy Support, Teacher’s Care, la Échelle de Satisfacción des Besoins Psychologiques, Academic Motivation Scale, High School Version y Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire. Se adaptaron y validaron las escalas Student’s Percepcion of Autonomy Support y Teacher’s Care al contexto español. Se calcularon los estadísticos descriptivos de todas las variables objeto de estudio (medias y desviaciones típicas), se analizó la consistencia interna de cada factor mediante el coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach y se realizaron correlaciones bivariadas. Para comprobar la relación predictiva existente entre las variables propuestas se analizaron los modelos de medida del modelo de regresión estructural. Los resultados mostraron que el soporte de autonomía docente predijo positivamente a las necesidades psicológicas básicas, estas a la motivación autodeterminada y ésta finalmente predijo positivamente el enfoque de aprendizaje profundo del estudiante. Se concluye que el apoyo a la autonomía al estudiante por parte del docente puede ser un elemento clave para lograr motivar al estudiante hacia un aprendizaje autónomo y permanente.

 

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between autonomy support, basic psychological needs (perception of competence, autonomy and relatedness) and self-determined motivation on student adolescents to whom a deep approach to learning was applied. The sample consisted of 405 Spanish students of Compulsory Secondary Education, High School and Vocational Training (212 women and 193 men), aged between 12 and 20 (M = 16.4, DT = 2.45). The instruments used were: Student’s, Perception of Autonomy Support, Teacher’s Care, L’Échelle de Satisfaction des Besoins Psychologiques, Academic Motivation Scale, as well as the High School Version and the Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire. The scales of Perception of Autonomy Support and Teacher’s Care was translated into Spanish context and validated. It was carried out descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations), the internal consistency of each factor with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and bivariate correlations for all variables. In order to examine the predictive relationship between all proposed variables, analysis of models used to measure the structural relationship model was performed. It was found that the autonomy support applied by teachers led to a satisfactory prediction of psychological mediators, which in turn allowed for predicting the selfdetermined motivation in each student’s deep-learning approach. It was concluded that a teacher, by supporting autonomy, can considerably motivate students so that they learn on an autonomous and permanent basis.

Citas

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Publicado
2017-09-01