“No a la contaMINAción”. Contrainsurgencia en el proyecto minero de cobre Tía María (Perú)

Autores/as

  • Alexander Dunlap University of Oslo, Centre for Development and the Environment
  • Carlo Eduardo Fernández Valencia Investigador Independiente

Palabras clave:

Perú, conflicto ambiental, contrainsurgencia, resistencia, minería, responsabilidad social corporativa

Resumen

Este artículo analiza las reacciones políticas “top-down” de la empresa minera Southern Copper Perú y del gobierno peruano a la oposición popular frente a un proyecto minero de cobre, situado sobre el valle agrícola de Tambo (Perú). Los residentes organizaron una consulta popular, manifestaciones a gran escala, bloqueos de carreteras y huelgas generales y enfrentaron a una represión violenta. Se examina la ecología política de la contrainsurgencia, que estudia las técnicas de guerra socio ecológica empleadas para controlar los recursos humanos y naturales, y se relaciona con el discurso de la guerra social. La primera sección establece los fundamentos teóricos sobre la coerción y el “componente de guerra social” presentes en la extracción de recursos naturales. Esto lleva a una visión de la relación entre las fuerzas de seguridad peruanas y las industrias de extracción, seguida de una breve cronología del conflicto de Tía María. Las dos secciones siguientes ofrecen un análisis de ecología política de varias técnicas de contrainsurgencia "duras" y "blandas" empleadas por el estado peruano y Southern en un intento de pacificar el malestar y la aceptación social del proyecto. La sección final discute el enfoque de contrainsurgencia empleado por el gobierno y reconoce cómo los actuales acuerdos institucionales y los imperativos comerciales están diseñados para anular las preocupaciones socio ecológicas populares. Haciendo uso del discurso de la guerra social, se sostiene que el aparato estatal y la política sirven como instrumento de pacificación social y explotación ecológica, a pesar de las preocupaciones ecológicas y climáticas generalizadas.

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2022-08-05