Firmas del conservadurismo: peticiones, política popular y campañas contra las reformas en Gran Bretaña, 1780-1918

Resumen

El estudio de las peticiones colectivas en el Reino Unido se ha centrado por lo general en campañas progresistas, reformistas o liberales, y movimientos tales como el antiesclavismo, el radicalismo, el cartismo, el libre comercio o el sufragio femenino. Sin embargo, sería mejor considerar las nuevas formas de petición colectiva surgidas a finales del siglo xviii como tecnologías neutrales. Algunas de las mayores peticiones del siglo xix resultaron de campañas tory, conservadoras, lealistas o reaccionarias. La defensa de las iglesias protestantes oficiales de Inglaterra, Irlanda, Escocia y Gales movilizó millones de firmas, al igual que la oposición a que se otorgaran derechos a los disidentes católicos y protestantes. Los intereses proteccionistas, a su vez, se opusieron al libre comercio. En contraste con las reformistas, estas campañas eran, por lo general, reactivas, y respondían a propuestas de cambio de sus adversarios. Hicieron estas también un mayor uso, en su práctica peticionaria, de redes preexistentes del clero y la Iglesia, y tardaron algo más que sus adversarios en adoptar nuevas formas de asociacionismo y nuevas formas de petición colectiva. Por ejemplo, los conservadores siguieron haciendo hincapié en la respetabilidad y la calidad de los firmantes en vez de la cantidad, por más que los números tuvieran una importancia cada vez mayor en los debates públicos. El uso de las peticiones también mantuvo la identidad conservadora. En general, las peticiones de los conservadores muestran de qué manera estos, si no a la democracia, sí se adaptaron a la política popular del siglo XIX

Citas

Agnes, B. (2013) A Chartist Singularity?: Mobilizing to Promote Democratic Petitions in Britain and France, 1838-1848. Labour History Review, 78(1), 51-66.

Barbary, V. (2008) Reinterpreting “Factory Politics” in Bury, Lancashire, 1868-1880. Historical Journal, 51(1) 115-44.

Blake, R. (1985) The Conservative Party from Peel to Thatcher. London: Fontana.

Blaxill, L. (2020) The War of Words: The Language of British Elections, 1880-1914. Woodbridge: Boydell/ Royal Historical Society.

Carpenter, D. (2016) Recruitment by Petition: American Antislavery, French Protestantism, English Suppression. Perspectives on Politics, 14(3), 700-23.

Carpenter, D. and D. Brossard (2019) L’éruption patriote: The Revolt against Dalhousie and the Petitioning Explosion in Nineteenth-Century French Canada. Social Science History, 43(3), 453-85.

Carpenter, D. and C.D. Moore (2014) When Canvassers Became Activists: Antislavery Petitioning and the Mobilization of American Women. American Political Science Review, 108(3), 479-98.

Carpenter, D. and B. Schneer (2015) Party Formation through Petitions: The Whigs and the Bank War of 1832-1834. Studies in American Political Development, 29(2), 213-34.

Carpenter, D., Z. Popp, T. Resch, B. Schneer and N. Topich (2018) Suffrage Petitioning as Formative Practice: American Women Presage and Prepare for the Vote, 1840-1940. Studies in American Political Development, 32(1), 24-48.

Chase, M. (2019) What Did Chartism Petition For?: Mass Petitions in the British Movement for Democracy. Social Science History, 43(3), 531-51.

Cragoe, M. (2008) The Great Reform Act and the Modernization of British Politics: The Impact of Conservative Associations, 1835-1841. Journal of British Studies, 47(3), 581-603.

Daunton, M. (2001) , Trusting Leviathan: The Politics of Taxation in Britain, 1799-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dumas, P. (2016) Proslavery Britain: Fighting for Slavery in an Era of Abolition. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Ellens, J. (1994) Religious Routes to Gladstonian Liberalism: The Church Rate Conflict in England and Wales, 1852-1868. University Park, PA.: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Gleadle, K. (2007) Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna and the Mobilization of Tory Women in Early Victorian England. Historical Journal, 50(1), 97-117.

Griffin, B. (2012) Politics of Gender in Victorian Britain: Masculinity, Political Culture and the Struggle for Women’s Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gurney, P. (2014) , The Democratic Idiom: Languages of Democracy in the Chartist Movement. Journal of Modern History, 86(3), 566-602.

Gutzke, D. (1989) Protecting the Pub: Brewers and Publicans against Temperance. Woodbridge: Boydell/ Royal Historical Society.

Hall, C., K. McClelland, and J. Rendall (2000) Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Race and Gender and the British Reform Act of 1867. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harling, P. (1995) The Waning of ‘Old Corruption’: The Politics of Economical Reform in Britain, 1779-1846. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Harrison (1978) Separate Spheres: The Opposition to Women’s Suffrage in Britain. London: Croom Helm.

________ (1994) Drink and the Victorians: The Temperance Question in England, 1815-1872. Keele: Keele University Press.

Huzzey, R. (2019) A Microhistory of British Antislavery Petitioning. Social Science History, 43(3), 599-623.

Huzzey, R. and H. Miller (2020) Petitions, Parliament and Political Culture: Petitioning the House of Commons, 1780-1918.

___________ (forthcoming) The Politics of Petitioning: Parliament, Government and Subscriptional Cultures in Britain, 1780-1918. History.

Innes, J., M. Philp and R. Saunders (2013) The Rise of Democratic Discourse in the Reform Era: Britain in the 1830s and 1840s. J. Innes and M. Philp (eds), Re-imagining Democracy in the Age of Revolutions: America, France, Britain, Ireland, 1750-1850 (pp. 114-28). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Janse, M. (2019) “What Value Should We Attach to All These Petitions?”: Petition Campaigns and the Problem of Legitimacy in the Nineteenth-Century Netherlands. Social Science History, 43(3), 509-30.

Jenkins, T. (1994) The Liberal Ascendancy, 1830-1886. Basingstoke: Palgrave

Jones, A. (1972) The Politics of Reform, 1884. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jones, E. (2017) Edmund Burke and the Invention of Modern Conservatism, 1830-1914: An Intellectual History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lawrence, J. (1993) Class and Gender in the Making of Urban Toryism, 1880-1914. English Historical Review, 108(428), 629-52.

Marsh, P.T. (1978) The Discipline of Popular Government: Lord Salisbury’s Domestic Statecraft, 1881-1902. Hassocks: Harvester Press.

Midgley, C. (1992) Women Against Slavery: The British Campaigns, 1780-1870. London: Routledge.

Miller (2012) Popular Petitioning and the Corn Laws, 1833-1846. English Historical Review, 127(527), 882-919.

______ (2017) Petition! Petition!! Petition!!!: Petitioning and Political Organization in Britain, c. 1800-1850. H. te Velde and M. Janse (eds), Organizing Democracy: Reflections on the Rise of Political Organizations in the Nineteenth Century (pp. 43-61). Basingstoke: Palgrave.

______ (2019) Introduction: The Transformation of Petitioning in the Long Nineteenth Century (1780-1914). Social Science History, 43(3), 409-29.

_________ (forthcoming) The British Women’s Suffrage Movement and the Practice of Petitioning, 1890-1914. Historical Journal.

Neuheiser, J. (2016) Crown, Church and Constitution: Popular Conservatism in England, 1815-1867. New York: Berghahn.

Palacios Cerezales, D. (2019) Re-imagining Petitioning in Spain (1808-1823). Social Science History, 43(3), 487-508.

Parry, J. (1993) The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain, 1830-1886. New Haven, CT.: Yale University Press.

Paz, D. (1992) Popular Anti-Catholicism in Mid-Victorian England. Stanford, CA.: Stanford University Press.

Philp, M. (1995) Vulgar Conservatism, 1792-3. English Historical Review, 110(435), 42-69.

Pickering, P. (2001) “And Your Petitioners, &c.” Chartist Petitioning in Popular Politics, 1838-1848. English Historical Review, 116(466), 368-88.

Pinabarsi, S. (forthcoming). Manchester Antislavery, 1792-1807. Slavery & Abolition.

Prochaska, F. (2012) Eminent Victorians on American Democracy: The View from Albion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pugh, M. (2000) The March of the Women: A Revisionist Analysis of the Campaign for Women’s Suffrage, 1866-1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Roberts, M. (2006) “Villa Toryism” and Popular Conservatism in Leeds, 1885-1902. Historical Journal, 49(1), 217-46.

Salmon, P. (2002) Electoral Reform at Work: Local Politics and National Parties, 1832-1841. Woodbridge: Boydell/Royal Historical Society.

Saunders (2011) Democracy and the Vote in British Politics, 1848-1867: The Making of the Second Reform Act. Farnham: Ashgate.

______ (2013) Democracy. D. Craig and J. Thompson (eds), Languages of Politics in Nineteenth-Century Britain (pp. 142-67). Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Saward, M. (2010 The Representative Claim. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shannon, R.T. (1992) The Age of Disraeli, 1868-1881. London: Longman.

______________ (1996) The Age of Salisbury, 1881-1902. London: Longman.

Stewart, R. (1978) The Foundation of the Conservative Party, 1830-1867. London: Longman.

Thackeray, D. (2013) Conservatism for the Democratic Age: Conservative Cultures and the Challenge of Mass Politics in Early Twentieth-Century England. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Tilly, C. (1995) Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758-1834. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

Vallance, E. (2019) Loyalty, Memory and Public Opinion in England, 1658-1727. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Wilton, C. (2000) Popular Politics and Political Culture in Upper Canada, 1800-1850. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Windscheffel, A. (2007) , Popular Conservatism in Imperial London, 1868-1906. London: British Academy.

Zaeske, S. (2003) Signatures of Citizenship: Petitioning, Antislavery and Women’s Political Identity. Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina Press.

Publicado
2021-11-17
Sección
MONOGRÁFICO