Do political parties matter in bringing about a democratic transition? An analysis of their role after Bouteflika’s resignation in Algeria

  • Inmaculada Szmolka Universidad de Granada
Palabras clave: Transición democrática, Resiliencia autoritaria, Partidos políticos, Elecciones, Reforma constitucional, Argelia

Resumen

La dimisión del presidente Bouteflika en abril de 2019, en respuesta a las amplias protestas populares, abrió una ventana de oportunidad democrática para un cambio de régimen en Argelia. Sin embargo, a pesar del descontento generalizado con el régimen, los partidos de oposición no han sido capaces de desencadenar una transición democrática en Argelia. Los militares tomaron el control de la situación e impusieron su propia hoja de ruta para poner fin a la crisis política, presionando para la celebración de elecciones presidenciales en diciembre de 2019. El presidente electo, Tebboune, ex primer ministro bajo la presidencia de Bouteflika, impulsó una reforma de la Constitución en 2020 y convocó elecciones parlamentarias para el 12 de junio de 2021. Este artículo analiza las posiciones y acciones políticas de los partidos políticos argelinos frente a estos procesos políticos que pretendían ser los cimientos de la nueva república. El estudio de caso de la crisis argelina contribuye a las teorías sobre democratización y resiliencia autoritaria. Lo hace demostrando que, incluso en condiciones favorables de intensa presión social por un cambio democrático y una desafección generalizada hacia el régimen autoritario, los partidos políticos no pueden ser una agencia democratizadora si: (1) la oposición permanece dividida, (2) los partidos no construyen amplias alianzas —no solo entre partidos, sino también con la sociedad civil— y (3) el régimen político conserva el apoyo de partidos leales.

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Publicado
2022-03-23
Cómo citar
Szmolka, I. (2022). Do political parties matter in bringing about a democratic transition? An analysis of their role after Bouteflika’s resignation in Algeria. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (58), 205-236. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.58.07
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