The Iranian foreign policy in turbulent times: The Arab uprisings, the nuclear deal and the GCC crisis


  • Luciano Zaccara Gulf Studies Center, Qatar University


Palabras clave:

política exterior iraní, análisis de política exterior, acuerdo nuclear iraní, Primavera Árabe, crisis del CCG


Utilizando el marco teórico del análisis de política exterior y el concepto de unidades de decisión autoritativas, este artículo analiza tres casos que requirieron la respuesta iraní: la Primavera Árabe, las negociaciones nucleares y la crisis del CCG de 2017. El artículo argumenta que no ha sido un actor individual, sino la combinación de actores individuales y colectivos los que tomaron las decisiones, conformando las unidades de decisión que diseñaron e implementaron la política exterior. También se sostiene que las decisiones tomadas se alineaban con el objetivo principal de la política exterior iraní, que es la de convertir a Irán en una potencia regional, para lo cual se implementaron diversas variaciones en las estrategias de no alineamiento.


Afrasiabi, Kaveh. 1994. After Khomeini. New Directions in Iran’s Foreign Policy. Boulder; San Francisco; Oxford: Westview Press.

Checkel, Jeffrey. 2008. “Constructivism and foreign policy”, in Steve Smith, Amelia Hadfield and Tim Dunne (eds.), Foreign Policy. Theories, Actors, Cases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chubin, Shahram. 2012. Iran and the Arab Spring: Ascendancy Frustrated. GRC Paper. Gulf Research Center. Available at:

Chubin, Shahram and Charles Tripp. 1996. Iran Saudi Arabia Relations and Regional Order. London: Oxford University Press.

Ehteshami, Anoush. 2003. “Iran-Iraq Relations Alter Saddam”, The Washington Quarterly, 26 (4): 115-129. Available at:

Ehteshami, Anoush and Raymond Hinnebusch. 1997. Syria and Iran: middle powers in a penetrated regional system. London; New York: Routledge.

Entessar, Nader and Kaveh Afrasiabi. 2017. Iran Nuclear Accord and the Remaking of the Middle East. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Farouk, Yasmine. 2019. “The Middle East Strategic Alliance Has a Long Way to Go”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 8-2-2019. Available at:

Haji-Yousefi, Amir. 2012. “Iran and the 2011 Arab Revolutions: Perceptions and Actions”, Discourse: An Iranian Quarterly, 10 (1-2): 23-60.

Halperin, Morton and Priscilla Clapp. 2006. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington: Brookings Institution.

Halliday, Fred. 1979. Iran, dictatorship and development. New York: Penguin Books.

Halliday, Fred. 2005. The Middle East in International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hermann, Margaret. 2001. “How Decision Units Shape Foreign Policy”, International Studies Review, 3 (2): 47-81. Available at:

Hinnebusch, Raymond. 2002. “Introduction: The Analytical Framework”, in Raymond Hinnebusch and Anoushiravan Ehteshami (ed.), The Foreign Policies of Middle East States. London: Lynne Rienner.

Holsti, Kal. 1970. “National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy”, International Studies Quarterly, 14 (3): 233-309. Available at:

Hooglund, Eric. 1992. “The Persian Gulf”, in Peter J. Schraeder (ed.), Intervention into the 1990s. U. S. Foreign Policy in the Third World. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Hudson, Valerie. 2008. “The history and evolution of foreign policy analysis”, in Steve Smith, Amelia Hadfield and Tim Dunne (eds.), Foreign Policy. Theories, Actors, Cases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hunter, Shireen. 2019. “The Persian Gulf Crisis: Beyond the Carter Doctrine”, Lobe Log, 23-9-2019. Available at:

Jarzabek, Jaroslaw. 2016. “GCC. Military Spending in the Era of Low Oil Prices”, Middle East Institute, 8-8-2016. Available at:

Jedinia, Mohammad. 2013. “Ahmadinejad Declares ‘Viva Spring’ in Iran”, Al Monitor, 13-2-2013. Available at:

Kurzman, Charles. 2012. “The Arab Spring: Ideals of the Iranian Green Movement, Methods of the Iranian Revolution”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 44, 162-165. Available at:

Mir-Hosseini, Ziba. 2012. “Iranian responses to the ‘Arab spring’: appropriation and contestation”, Open Democracy, 9-2-2012. Available at:

Nolte, Detlef. 2010. “How to compare regional powers: analytical concepts and research topics”, Review of International Studies, 36 (4): 881-901. Available at:

Nonneman, Gerd. 2005. “Analyzing the Foreign Policies of Middle East and North Africa: A Conceptual Framework”, in G. Nonneman (ed.), Analyzing Middle East Foreign Policies and the Relationship with Europe. London: Routledge. Available:

Ramazani, Ruhollah. 1975. Iran’s Foreign Policy, 1941-1973. A Study of Foreign Policy in Modernizing Nations. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Ramazani, Ruhollah. 1990a. “Iran’s export of the revolution: politics, ends and means”, in John L. Esposito (ed.), The Iranian Revolution. Its Global Impact. Miami: Florida International University Press.

Ramazani, Ruhollah. 1990b. “Iran’s Resistance to the U. S. Intervention in the Persian Gulf”, in Nikki R. Keddie and Mark J. Gasiorowski (eds.), Neither East nor West. Iran, the Soviet Union and the United States. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Ramazani, Ruhollah. 2013. Independence without Freedom: Iran’s Foreign Policy. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

SESRI. 2018. Qatar against the Blockade. SESRI Omnibus Survey, 1-8-2018. Available at:

Zaccara, Luciano. 2016. “Iran´s permanent quest for regional power status”, in Jacqueline Anne Braveboy-Wagner (ed.), Diplomatic Strategies of Leading Nations in the Global South: Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Available at:

Zaccara, Luciano and Mehran Haghirian. 2020. “Rouhani, the Nuclear Deal, and New Horizons for Iran-US Relations”, in Luciano Zaccara (ed.), The Foreign Policy of Iran under President Hassan Rouhani First Term (2013-2017). Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan. Available at:

Zibakalam, S. 2011. “Syria spoils the Iranian victory”, Bitterlemons International, 31 (9): 27.



Cómo citar

Zaccara, L. (2021). The Iranian foreign policy in turbulent times: The Arab uprisings, the nuclear deal and the GCC crisis. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (56), 49–70.



Sección monográfica